A REVIEW OF 80 YEARS OF MEMORIES INDUCTED BY ELECTRICAL BRAIN STIMULATION


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Memory scrutinized through electrical brain stimulation: a review of 80 years of experiential phenomena.
Curot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. (2017).

Abbreviations:
AD: Afterdischarge
EBS: Electrical Brain Stimulation
ECOG: Electrocorticography (subdural grids)
SEEG: Stereoelectroencephalography
SOZ: Seizure Onset Zone.

Main authorN° PatientType of reminiscenceEBS LocalisationType of surgical explorationBi- or monopolar stimulation


N° patient Reminiscence Patient Main author Year of publication Debriefing - Memory Content Type of reminiscence Age Sex Handedness Pathology Epilepsy duration (year) Medical past Seizures Dreamy state during seizures Hemisphere supposed SOZ Supposed Epileptogenic Zone Brain lesion EBS Localisation Hemispheric side of EBS Afterdischarge (AD) Localisation post-décharge (Décharge si spontanée) Pulses Frequency - pulses duration Bi- or monopolar stimulation Type of surgical exploration Amplitude or Intensity référence bibliographique complte
1aCase number 1Bickford1958At other times he said, "I can hear many voices hollering for me across the street. They want me to come and play. lt's somewhere near home. I think there are five or six people. I can hear them but can't see anything." He said that such "hollering" across the street was a frequent experience when he played at home, and he also volunteered the information for the first time that similar "hollering". If stimulation was continued, once the threshold for "hollering" had been reached, the experience sometimes seemed to increase in complexity, and he would say: "There are more people hollering. I can hear those voices very plainly."Personal semantics11MRightEpilepsy5Febrile seizures, tonsillectomy, mental retardation, psychiatric disorders"I am having a spell" followed by turning of the head to the right with drawing up of the right arm and sometimes of the right leg. Then there is a short period of staring and unresponsiveness.Dreamy state: "I am having a spell."LeftUnilateral temporalEnlargement of anterior part of temporal lobeAmygdalaLeftNo ADMonophasic20Hz - pulses 1msBipolarDepth electrodes>5VBickford, R. G., Mulder, D. W., Dodge Jr, H. W., Svien, H. J., & Rome, H. P. (1958). Changes in memory function produced by electrical stimulation of the temporal lobe in man. Research Publications of the Association for Research in Nervous & Mental Disease.
2aM.M.Penfield1958/1963She heard a "mother calling his little boy." "It seemed to be something that happened years agoEpisodic26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2bM.M.Penfield1958/1963"Yes, I hear the same familiar sounds, it seems to be a woman calling. The same lady. That was not in the neighbourhood. It seemed to be at the lumber yard." She added "I have never been around any lumber yard". Unclassifiable26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2cM.M.Penfield1958/1963[She] hears a man's voice and a woman's voice "down along the river somewhere" and she saw the river. It was a place "I was visiting", she said "when i was a child." (1958). "Yes, I heard voices down along the river somewhere - a man's voice and a woman's voice, calling" When asked how she could tell it was down along the river, she said, "I think I saw the river". When asked what river, she said, "I do not know, it seems to be one I was visiting when I was a child." (1963)Personal semantics26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2dM.M.Penfield1958/1963She heard voices at late night and that she saw "the big wagons they use to haul the animals of a circus in (1958). "I hear voices it's late at night, around the carnival somewhere some sort of traveling circus. I just saw lots of big wagons they use to haul animals in" (1963).Unclassifiable26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2eM.M.Penfield1958/1963"I had a little memory - a scene in a play. They were talking and I could see it. It was just seeing it in my memory" (1963).Unclassifiable26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedFusiform gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2fM.M.Penfield1958/1963"Oh it hurts and that feeling of familiarity - a familiar memory - the place where I hang my coat up, where I go to work" (1963).Personal semantics26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
2gM.M.Penfield1958/1963"I had a familiar memory in an office somewhere. I could see the desks I was there and some one was calling to me, a man leaning on a desk with a pencil in his hand".Episodic26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy11UnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedInferior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3aN.C.Penfield 1958/1963"I feel I have a sick spell". Stimulus was withdrawn. She then added "Mother is talking to me" (1963).Familiarity23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3bN.C.Penfield 1958/1963Patient laughed. When asked what had happened, while stimulation was still going on, she said: "Well, it is kind of a long story but I will tell you." Stimulus was withdrawn. She went on to explain a rather complicated situation, and then said she told her mother: "Don't forget the fabulous feeling." When asked if that was something she had said to her mother, she said her mother mocked her. When asked whether it was a dream or something she remembered, she exclaimed: "No." Then she said: "I took my arm and brought it down on the plate and broke the plate all to pieces." When asked where it was, she said in her home in Richland, Washington. (1963).Episodic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3cN.C.Penfield 1958/1963She said: "Yes, another experience, a different experience." Then she added: "A true experience. This man, Mr. Meerburger, he, oh well, he drinks. Twice his boy has run away. I went to the store once for an ice cream cone and I saw that he was back, and I said 'Hmm, he is back' and the lady asked me 'What is the matter,' and I didn't know how to explain so I said, 'Well you know Mr. Meerburger drinks.' I thought that was the easiest way but later mother told me, no, and it made it a lot worse." (1963).Episodic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3dN.C.Penfield 1958/1963"It makes me think of a baby song, I cannot think of words" (1963).Semantic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3eN.C.Penfield 1958/1963After withdrawal, the operator said, "You don't notice anything do you?" She replied, "Yes, I was trying to identify the song." When asked if she would like the stimulation repeated, she said, "Yes." Stimulus was applied and after a time she began to hum, and she hummed an air quite accurately. Then she said, "It is the War March of the Priests (1963),Semantic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3fN.C.Penfield 1958/1963Patient was asked if she heard the air and she said she heard another one which sounded very much like "War March of the Priests." She added that it was not a baby song after all. She thought the first song she heard was a baby song (1963).Semantic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
3gN.C.Penfield 1958/1963 As a final test the patient was asked to let the operator know when she heard the song. After some delay, point 23 was stimulated. As the electrode was applied, she said: "There." When asked what it was, she said all she could think of was the War March of the Priests. She said she had the Hallelujah Chorus on a record at home and that this was on the other side of it. When asked what it was she heard she said it was just an arrangement of the orchestra and no voice. She was only able to hum it part way, and she added that she did not know the words (1963).Semantic23FUnspecifiedEpilepsy19Seizures at 2 years old after anti-pertussis serum injectionAbdominal sensation, automatism, tonic posturing of the right arm and leg.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy of the first left temporal convolution extending medially to the left hippocampusSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
4aE.W.Penfield1958She seemed to be living over again a previous experience. She seemed to see herself giving birth to her baby girl. Personal folklore37FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecified40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W. (1958). Some mechanisms of consciousness discovered during electrical stimulation of the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 44(2), 51-66.
5aM.B.Van Buren1960"I saw something, a dream, a nightmare I had a couple years ago."Reminiscence of a dream19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Head traumaChest sensation, auditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings, automatisms or ajor fit, post ictal metallic taste.Auditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings.BilateralBilateral temporalEnglarged left ventricleTemporal poleUnspecifiedADTemporal60Hz - pulses 2.5msBipolarDepth ElectrodesUnspecifiedVan Buren, J. M. (1961). Sensory, motor and autonomic effects of mesial temporal stimulation in man. Journal of neurosurgery, 18(3), 273-288.
5bM.B.Van Buren1960"That brings back the nightmare-like picture of the 'Wizard of Oz' - 'Little men from Mars' ". Restimulation in the same regions causes him to make the same remarks. Semantic19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Head traumaChest sensation, auditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings, automatisms or ajor fit, post ictal metallic tasteAuditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings.BilateralBilateral temporalEnglarged left ventricleTemporal poleUnspecifiedADTemporal60Hz - pulses 2.5msBipolarDepth Electrodes (.006 inches stainless-stell wire insultaed with Kel-F plastic apart from the Tip,wires mounted serially on a central 30 gauge stainless - stell core 4 cm)UnspecifiedVan Buren, J. M. (1961). Sensory, motor and autonomic effects of mesial temporal stimulation in man. Journal of neurosurgery, 18(3), 273-288.
5cM.B.Van Buren1960On restimulation he said "in a dream I have had before 'a monkey doing something impossible'."Reminiscence of a dream19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Head traumaChest sensation, auditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings, automatisms or ajor fit, post ictal metallic taste.Auditory hallucination, visual illusion, changed interpretation of self and surroundings.BilateralBilateral temporalEnglarged left ventricleTemporal poleUnspecifiedADTemporal60Hz - pulses 2.5msBipolarDepth Electrodes (.006 inches stainless-stell wire insultaed with Kel-F plastic apart from the Tip,wires mounted serially on a centrla on a central 30 gauge stainless -stell core 4 cm)UnspecifiedVan Buren, J. M. (1961). Sensory, motor and autonomic effects of mesial temporal stimulation in man. Journal of neurosurgery, 18(3), 273-288.
6aE.O.Baldwin1960"I had a young feeling." "I felt 6 years old again." Personal semantics17MRightEpilepsy2Cyanosis at birth, slow developmentUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftUnspecified60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery40VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
6bE.O.Baldwin1960"I have a sensation like I was building a jet racer which was red and blue."Episodic17MRightEpilepsy2Cyanosis at birth, slow developmentUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftUnspecified60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery40VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
6cE.O.Baldwin1960"It was long ago. We were deer hunting." When asked he said he saw himself deer hunting with his father.Episodic17MRightEpilepsy2Cyanosis at birth, slow developmentUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftUnspecified60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery40VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7aC.W.Baldwin1960"It's a garage on the left, the trees in the back, the fence. " "You are [talking about doctor] familiar to me, you look like and old fellow I know Jack Hough."Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7bC.W.Baldwin1960" I saw the same scene you were Jack Hough." Unclassifiable28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7cC.W.Baldwin1960When there is a change of place between the doctor and the other people in the room, the patient is reliving the same scene but without Jack Hough.Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7dC.W.Baldwin1960"This scene was different it was the old schoolhouse but Jack Hough was there still". "It s a gray stone building very firm to gray."Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7eC.W.Baldwin1960"I just had that feeling again. Jack Hough was the only one on the picture and he did not say a word to me".Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7fC.W.Baldwin1960He saw an old math class, he was outside the actual scene with Jack Hough.Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7gC.W.Baldwin1960He saw the scene of the garage.Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7hC.W.Baldwin1960"The picture I saw this time - the picture was on Bryn Mawr Avenue in front of JH's house. It was entirely different, JH was in the picture".Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
7iC.W.Baldwin1960"JH was in the picture. There is a brick house in back of him. It is contrahawkins straight road".Personal semantics28MUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery8VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
8aM.F.Baldwin1960"You sound distant and I feel strange. A lot of things come back to my memory... There was a boy named Peter Bush... I wonder why these things are being brought to my attention". "I know where he lives and can tell you his address."Personal semantics25FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism, loss of contact.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusUnspecifiedNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery1-5VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
8bM.F.Baldwin1960"Do you hear that man scraping in the hall" she continued " that reminds me of the Kinney School where Iused to go and of the Jannitor pulling something " " I don't know why i think of these things " it makes me feel very strange".Personal semantics25FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, oral automatism, loss of contact.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusUnspecifiedNo AD60Hz - pulses 2.5msMonopolarDepth electrodes during awake surgery1-5VBaldwin, M. (1960). Electrical stimulation of the mesial temporal region. Electrical Studies on the Unanesthetized Brain. E. R. Ramey and D. S. O'Doherty. New York, Hoeber: 159-176.
9aSingle caseSem Jacobsen1960One patient revealed events that happened to him at this hospital several years ago. The psychiatrists at the hospital do not feel there is any indication as to the episode being of special significance to the patientPersonal semantics39UnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRight temporo-occipital atrophyParahippocampal gyrusUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic60Hz - pulses 1msBipolarDepth electrodesUnspecifiedSem-Jacobsen, C. W., & Torkildsen, A. (1960). Depth recording and electrical stimulation in the human brain. Electrical studies on the unanesthetized brain, 275-290.
10aJ.V.Penfield1963Repeated five minutes after above stimulation at this point. "Everybody is yelling again. It is mostly my family. I can hear my mother and brothers."Familiarity14FUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedExperiential hallucination (visual type), interpretive illusion, fear, automatism.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
11aR.B.Penfield & Perot1963Repeated. "I tried to think." When asked whether he saw something or heard something, he said, "I saw and heard. It seemed familiar, as though I had been there."Unclassifiable21MLeftEpilepsy12UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation followed by a change in his thinking so that things became "unreal", a sensation in the right side of his neck, a right auditory sensation and vertigo +/_ automatic behavior.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.LeftUnilateral temporalLeft hemispheric atrophy, hippocampal hemorrhagic cystSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
11bR.B.Penfield & Perot1963He explained "It was like being in a dance hall, like standing in the doorway - in a gymnasium - like at the Kenwood Highschool." He added, "If I wanted to go there it would be similar to what I heard just now."Unclassifiable21MLeftEpilepsy12UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation followed by a change in his thinking so that things became "unreal", a sensation in the right side of his neck, a right auditory sensation and vertigo +/_ automatic behavior.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.LeftUnilateral temporalLeft hemispheric atrophy, hippocampal hemorrhagic cystSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
11cR.B.Penfield & Perot1963"People's voices." When asked, he said, "Relatives, my mother." When asked if it was over, he said, "I do not know." When asked if he also realized he was in the operating room, he said "Yes." He explained it seemed like a dream."Familiarity21MLeftEpilepsy12UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation followed by a change in his thinking so that things became "unreal", a sensation in the right side of his neck, a right auditory sensation and vertigo +/_ automatic behavior.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.LeftUnilateral temporalLeft hemispheric atrophy, hippocampal hemorrhagic cystSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
11dR.B.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said "I am trying." After withdrawal of the electrode he said, "It seemed as if my niece and nephew were visiting at my home. It happened like that many times. They were getting ready to go home, putting their things on their coats and hats." When asked where, he said, "In the dining room the front room - they were moving about. There were three of them and my mother was talking to them. She was rushed - in a hurry. I could not see them clearly or hear them clearly." Personal semantics21MLeftEpilepsy12UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation followed by a change in his thinking so that things became "unreal", a sensation in the right side of his neck, a right auditory sensation and vertigo +/_ automatic behavior.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.LeftUnilateral temporalLeft hemispheric atrophy, hippocampal hemorrhagic cystSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
11eR.B.Penfield & Perot1963"Radio. I think it was Philadelphia; it was news." He said it was at his home.Personal semantics21MLeftEpilepsy12UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation followed by a change in his thinking so that things became "unreal", a sensation in the right side of his neck, a right auditory sensation and vertigo +/_ automatic behavior.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.LeftUnilateral temporalLeft hemispheric atrophy, hippocampal hemorrhagic cystSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12aR.W.Penfield & Perot1963He said nothing for a little interval and then he said: "Oh gee, gosh, robbers are coming at me with guns! "He heard nothing, he just saw them coming at him. The robbers seemed to have been coming at an angle from the left. When asked if they came in front of him, he said no they were behind him. This seems to be the reproduction not of a real event, but of a fantasy or a dream drawn from the reading of a comic book, a silent fantasy devoid of auditory components.Strangeness with memory12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarMiddle temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12bR.W.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, the robbers they are coming after me."Strangeness with memory12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarUnclear/unspecifiedRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12cR.W.Penfield & Perot1963"Oh gosh! There they are, my brother is there. He is aiming an air rifle at me." His eyes moved slowly to the left. The figures seemed to disappear before the cessation of the stimulus. When asked, he said his brother was walking toward him, and the gun was loaded. When asked where he was, he said at his house, in the yard. His other little brother was there, that was all. When asked if he felt scared when he saw his brother, he said, "Yes." When asked if he always felt scared when he saw the robbers, he said "Yes." Strangeness with memory12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarInferior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12dR.W.Penfield & Perot1963"I heard someone speaking, my mother telling one of my aunts to come up tonight." Episodic12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12eR.W.Penfield & Perot1963 "The same as before. My mother was telling my aunt over the telephone to come up and visit us tonight." When asked how he knew she was talking over the telephone, he said he did not see her, but from the way his aunt's voice sounded when she answered he knew it was over the telephone. Episodic12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
12fR.W.Penfield & Perot1963 "My mother is telling my brother he has got his coat on backwards. I can just hear them." When asked if he remembered it, he said, "Oh yes, just before I came here." When asked if he thought these things were like dreams, he said "No." When asked what it was like, he said "It is just like I go into a daze."Episodic12MUnspecifiedEpilepsy3UnspecifiedVisual sensation (coloured triangles), experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with an occasional generalized seizure (mainly left-sided). After the visual sensation usually he would see a robber, or a man with a gun, moving toward him. The man was someone he had seen in the movies or the comic strips. The figures then moved to the left and the patient's head and eyes would turn to the left.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.RightOccipitalRight occipital lobe cortical scarSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13aA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, it is White Christmas." When asked if anyone was singing, she said, "Yes, a choir." When asked if she remembered it being sung with a choir, she said she thought so. Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13bA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, I have heard it before. A man's voiceFamiliarity32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13cA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"The play again!" Then she began to hum. When asked what she was humming, she said she did not know, it was what she heard. Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13dA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963Patient began to hum. She continued at the ordinary pace of a song. "I know it but I don't know the nameFamiliarity32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13eA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"White Christmas" she said "It was the orchestra playing." Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13fA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes the play again."Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13gA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963 "White Christmas." Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13hA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"The play - they are talking." When asked who, she said: "The men are talking." When asked who they were, she said: "I don't know." Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
13iA.Bra.Penfield & Perot1963"The same thing. The play and they are banging on something like a drum." Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy1Depressive syndrome with hallucinations (16 years old)Experiential hallucination (visual or visual sensation), nausea, vomiting, adversive turning to the left, generalized convulsion.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedAtrophic abnormality found in the occipital lobe and medial temporal lobe in the distribution of the posterior cerebral arterySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
14aD.F.Penfield & Perot1963-1958"I hear some music." One year later in a letter to Penfield she describes: "There were instruments, it was as though it were being played by an orchestra. Definitely it was not as though I were imaging the tune to myself. I actually heard it. It is not one of my favorite songs, so I don't know why I heard that song. I finally got ahold of a copy of this piece and played it on the piano the other Sunday."Semantic26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Anoxic brain injury following an anaestheticWarning feeling of sudden fear, substernal thoracic sensation, automatism, occasional generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - visual type, interpretive illusion - fear.UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedRight temporal lobe ischemic lesion: atrophy of the right first temporal convolution, of the inferior temporal lobe and of the uncusSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
14bD.F.Penfield & Perot1963"I hear the music again. It is like the radio." When asked what tune, she said she did not know but that it was familiar. Familiarity26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Anoxic brain injury following an anaestheticWarning feeling of sudden fear, substernal thoracic sensation, automatism, occasional generalized seizure.NoneUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedRight temporal lobe ischemic lesion: atrophy of the right first temporal convolution, of the inferior temporal lobe and of the uncusSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
14cD.F.Penfield & Perot1963"I hear it." The electrode was kept in place and she was asked to tell us about it. She then hummed the tune. When asked, she said she never noticed that before an attack. Miss Stanley, the operating room nurse, recognized the tune as "Rolling Along Together." The patient agreed that this sounded like the words in the song.Semantic26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Anoxic brain injury following an anaestheticWarning feeling of sudden fear, substernal thoracic sensation, automatism, occasional generalized seizure.NoneUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedRight temporal lobe ischemic lesion: atrophy of the right first temporal convolution, of the inferior temporal lobe and of the uncusSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
15aM.G.Penfield & Perot1963"I hear people coming in." Then, "I hear music now - a funny little piece." Stimulation was continued. Patient became more talkative than usual, explaining that the music was something she had heard on the radio - that it was the theme song of a children's program. When asked, she said it was a record. Semantic16FUnspecifiedEpilepsy2UnspecifiedExperiential hallucination - combined auditory and visual type, generalized seizure.Before each of her attacks she would hear music which was always the same, a lullaby her mother had sung, "Hush-a-bye, my baby ..." She seemed to be in church or in a convent when she heard the song.RightTemporal but unspecifiedNoneSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
16aS.H.Penfield & Perot1963"Voices, the same as before. I was just losing touch with reality again." When asked, he replied that he could not understand what the voices were saying, they sounded "hazy." Unclassifiable20MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedFebrile seizures (3 years old).A thought or an awareness that an attack was imminent, experiential hallucination - auditory, the attack might stop at this point or go on to a mainly right-sided tonic posturing seizure with loss of consciousness.Thought or awareness, "It is a sudden clear, mental feeling which I know means an attack is coming."LeftUnilateral temporalScar with gliosis of the left anterior temporal lobeSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
17aR.L.Penfield & Perot1963 After withdrawal of the electrode, patient was asked whether she noticed anything and she said it sounded like a voice saying, "Jimmy, Jimmy, Jimmy." When asked, she said it was her husband's name and what she calls him. Personal semantics26FUnspecifiedEpilepsy2UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion (visual and auditory, objects seemed to come closer to her and things heard sounded louder and nearer), turning of head to left, momentary loss of consciousness, occasional nocturnal generalized seizures.Interpretive illusion (visual and auditory, objects seemed to come closer to her and things heard sounded louder and nearer).RightUnilateral temporalAbnormality of the medial and inferior cortexSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
18aR.M.Penfield & Perot1963The patient talked during stimulation. He said: "It was like a guy coming through the fence at the baseball game. I can see the whole thing." When asked if he had seen someone do that, he said, "Yes, I think so." When asked if he remembered the incident, he said: "I just happened to watch these two teams play when the fellow came through the fence. That would be like the beginning of an attack, anything might come up." Episodic31MUnspecifiedEpilepsy25UnspecifiedAutonomic-visceral motor (scrotal movement), experiential hallucination, automatisms.Experiential hallucinationUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
18bR.M.Penfield & Perot1963"Oh, it was like an attack, there was someone smoking tobacco, but I do not know who it was." When asked whether he heard or saw the man, he said he could not hear anything.Unclassifiable31MUnspecifiedEpilepsy25UnspecifiedAutonomic-visceral motor (scrotal movement), experiential hallucination, automatisms.Experiential hallucinationLeftTemporal but unspecifiedIncisural sclerosis abnormality in the left temporal lobeSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
19aR. Mca..Penfield & Perot1963He very quickly said, "The song again, doctor!" When asked, he said that he could not sing the song. He explained that it was a very modern one and instrumental rather than vocal. It was a song that he had heard before, a popular one on the radio, but he did not know the name of it. Semantic18MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, cephalic sensation eperiential hallucination - auditory, occasional major attacks beginning with initial unconsciousness.He stated that in most of his attacks he would "hear in my mind" the tune of some song that he had often heard when he was a child. He believed that it was a song from a children's program on the radio which he listened to often when 11 or 12 years old. It was orchestral music and there was no vocal accompaniment.RightUnilateral temporalLeft hemisphere sequelar atrophy Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
19bR. Mca.Penfield & Perot1963He exclaimed: "Here comes the song again." And then he added, "With a lot of old memories." Semantic18MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, cephalic sensation eperiential hallucination - auditory, occasional major attacks beginning with initial unconsciousness.He stated that in most of his attacks he would "hear in my mind" the tune of some song that he had often heard when he was a child. He believed that it was a song from a children's program on the radio which he listened to often when 11 or 12 years old. It was orchestral music and there was no vocal accompaniment.RightUnilateral temporalLeft hemisphere sequelar atrophy Middle temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
19cR. Mca.Penfield & Perot1963He stated that he heard the song as in a spell. Unclassifiable18MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedEpigastric sensation, cephalic sensation eperiential hallucination - auditory, occasional major attacks beginning with initial unconsciousness.He stated that in most of his attacks he would "hear in my mind" the tune of some song that he had often heard when he was a child. He believed that it was a song from a children's program on the radio which he listened to often when 11 or 12 years old. It was orchestral music and there was no vocal accompaniment.RightUnilateral temporalLeft hemisphere sequelar atrophy Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20aR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, something that someone has said." After a pause, "Not here, in Johannesburg." Unclassifiable46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20aR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, something that was said, also something that was said in Johannesburg, and it was said by somebody that had been put out." Personal semantics46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20bR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, I was hearing at Johannesburg, it came and went very clearly." Personal semantics46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20cR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, that same sort of sensation, somebody was speaking to me in Johannesburg." Patient said it is not the same voice each time. Personal semantics46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20dR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, very vaguely, what you said took me back to what somebody said in Johannesburg." Personal semantics46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20eR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963 "Yes, it reminds me of a song." Patient repeated the surgeon's words saying, "What do you hear?" He said afterwards that the song seemed to continue from the surgeon's words. Familiarity46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
20fR. Re.Penfield & Perot1963"I recall looking up my doctor in Johannesburg and telling him of my sensations." When asked whether he seemed to be with him, he said, "Yes." And added, "Like I was telling the doctor the sensation I had when I got the disease from water." The patient explained that it was a memory going back to the time when he spoke to the doctor.Episodic46MUnspecifiedEpilepsy1MeningitisChange in his thinking or stream of thought, he was then aware that he was making a mumbling sound and salivating, he felt the corner of his mouth pull to the right, he then lost consciousness and had automatisms.Change in his thinking or stream of thought.LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
21aG.B.Penfield & Perot1963"I am seeing a picture of a dog and cat." When asked what they were doing, she said, "The dog is chasing the cat." She said that they were running in the driveway at home and she remembered seeing them doing this before.Episodic16FUnspecifiedEpilepsy13"Complicated" birthDizziness, staring and confusion, chewing movements, raising of right arm, major generalized seizure with turning to right.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22aS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963While the electrode was held in place the patient said, "Something brings back a memory, I could see Seven-Up Bottling Company - Harrison Bakery." Warning was given again, but no stimulus applied. He was not fooled and replied, "Nothing." Personal semantics25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22bS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963While the electrode was held in place he replied, "Again something I have heard of but I cannot remember it." On questioning he added that it was a word but he could not remember what word.Familiarity25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22cS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963During stimulation he said, "I am trying to find the name of a song." The electrode was removed. "There was a piano there and someone was playing. I could hear the song, you know.It is a song I have sung before but I cannot find out quite what the title of the song is. That was what I was trying to do when you finished stimulating!"Semantic25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22dS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, 'Oh Marie, Oh Marie' - someone is singing it." He was then asked who it was and he replied, "I don't know, Doctor, I cannot recognize the voice." Semantic25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22eS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963He observed, while the electrode was being held in place, "Again, 'Oh Marie, Oh Marie.' " He explained that he had heard this before. "It is a theme song," he said, "on a radio program. The program is called the Life of Luigi." The patient then discussed the identity of the song with Dr. Sears and he ended by singing the well-known refrain, "Oh Marie, Oh Marie." All in the operating room recognized the song. Semantic25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
22fS. Be.Penfield & Perot1963"Someone telling me in my left (contralateral) ear, 'Sylvere, Sylvere!' It could have been the voice of my brother."Personal semantics25FUnspecifiedEpilepsy6UnspecifiedVertigo, experiential hallucination - auditory. Later the attacks changed their character and sensation, loss of consciousness and a generalized seizure.Experiential hallucination - auditory.RightUnilateral temporalSylvian vascular malformationMiddle temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
23aA. Br.Penfield & Perot1963"I seemed to hear a song, sort of familiar, like on the radio." Familiarity28FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedMental confusion or change in her thinking, automatisms, abdominal borborygmi.She felt that her thoughts were "going through a washing machine or wringer" or as if she were in another world. RightUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy (sequelae of thrombophlebitis)Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
23bA. Br.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said, "No." Then she said, "It reminded me of a song, but I do not know what song it was." Familiarity28FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedMental confusion or change in her thinking, automatisms, abdominal borborygmi.She felt that her thoughts were "going through a washing machine or wringer" or as if she were in another world. RightUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy (sequelae of thrombophlebitis)Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
23cA. Br.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said it made her try to imagine a familiar song. It was not that she heard the music. Strangeness with memory28FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedMental confusion or change in her thinking, automatisms, abdominal borborygmi.She felt that her thoughts were "going through a washing machine or wringer" or as if she were in another world. RightUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy (sequelae of thrombophlebitis)Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
23dA. Br.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said immediately, "Right then." When asked what she meant, she said it reminded her of a song. She could not recall what the song was. Familiarity28FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedMental confusion or change in her thinking, automatisms, abdominal borborygmi.She felt that her thoughts were "going through a washing machine or wringer" or as if she were in another world. RightUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy (sequelae of thrombophlebitis)Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
23eA. Br.Penfield & Perot1963Reminded her of a song.Familiarity28FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedMental confusion or change in her thinking, automatisms, abdominal borborygmi.She felt that her thoughts were "going through a washing machine or wringer" or as if she were in another world. RightUnilateral temporalFocal atrophy (sequelae of thrombophlebitis)Superior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24aG.E.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said she heard a buzzing sound. Then she said she saw a friend of hers. When asked who it was, she said "Somebody I know who I met on the street." She said it was a man and that she sometimes sees people in her attacks. Personal semantics22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaOccipital lobeRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24bG.E.Penfield & Perot1963After a pause the patient said, "I see a machine, one that I have seen before." The machine seemed to disappear before the end of the stimulation. Familiarity22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaOccipital lobeRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24cG.E.Penfield & Perot1963"Something new, I hear my mother singing." The electrode was replaced and she repeated, "I hear my mother singing." Personal semantics22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24dG.E.Penfield & Perot1963 After a little time, she said, "I hear my brother talking." When asked what he was saying, she said he was talking to one of his schoolmates.Personal semantics22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24eG.E.Penfield & Perot1963"I hear my mother and father talking and singing." And after a pause, "Christmas carols." When asked, she said: "I saw them for a second or two, then it faded." On further inquiry, she said they were talking and singing about Christmas. She was then asked if when she had heard her brother she also saw him and she replied: "Yes." Personal semantics22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
24fG.E.Penfield & Perot1963She exclaimed "Was that my mother yelling?" When asked after withdrawal of the electrode, she said "She was yelling at my little baby sister, Mary Jane." When asked if she saw them, she said she saw both distinctly. She said one was moving, but she could not remember which. "Mary Jane had done something bad, and mother was telling her not to do it."Personal semantics22FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Occipital fracture (16 months old), parieto-occipital gliosis surgery (13 years old).Forced turning of head and eyes to left, visual experiential hallucination - usually people seen, staring and occasional generalized seizures.When asked whether she ever heard people like her mother and father in any of her attacks, she said, "Sometimes."RightUnilateral temporalRight posterior sequelae of surgery and head traumaSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
25aG.F.Penfield & Perot1963She said, "I just heard one of my children speaking." She added that it was the older one, Frank, and that she could hear the "neighbourhood noises" as well. She meant other children's voices and automobiles passing her house. When asked what Frank had said, she replied: "I could not get that." Personal semantics45FUnspecifiedEpilepsy8UnspecifiedInterpretive illusions, automatism, occasional generalized seizures.Interpretive illusion (characterized by fear, and things she looked at seemed far away).RightUnilateral temporalRight temporal lobe incisural sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
25bG.F.Penfield & Perot1963She said she heard the "neighbourhood noises" again but not her boy's voice.Personal semantics45FUnspecifiedEpilepsy8UnspecifiedInterpretive illusions, automatism, occasional generalized seizures.Interpretive illusion (characterized by fear, and things she looked at seemed far away).RightUnilateral temporalRight temporal lobe incisural sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
26aL.G.Penfield & Perot1963Patient stated that a thought entered his head which he seemed to have had before. He likend it io the beginning of an attack. It was something he had heard, felt and thought in the past.Unclassifiable14MUnspecifiedEpilepsy9Head trauma (3 years old).General body "fullness", experiential hallucination, visual, loss of consciousness with occasional generalized seizures.His father stated that he had episodes of seeing vivid scenes which had occured in the past, usually at school. The patient also described seeing a room at the outset of the attack. He seemed to be in the room, but did not see himself. The room ould then go far off, as though he were looking at it through the wrong end of field glasses).LeftUnilateral temporalCortical abnormality found at the temporal tip and undersurfaceInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
26bL.G.Penfield & Perot1963Patient heard something that he had heard before. He was unable to describe it.Unclassifiable14MUnspecifiedEpilepsy9Head trauma (3 years old).General body "fullness", experiential hallucination, visual, loss of consciousness with occasional generalized seizures.His father stated that he had episodes of seeing vivid scenes which had occured in the past, usually at school. The patient also described seeing a room at the outset of the attack. He seemed to be in the room, but did not see himself. The room ould then go far off, as though he were looking at it through the wrong end of field glasses).LeftUnilateral temporalCortical abnormality found at the temporal tip and undersurfaceSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
26cL.G.Penfield & Perot1963Patient said "Something which has happened to me."Unclassifiable14MUnspecifiedEpilepsy9Head trauma (3 years old).General body "fullness", experiential hallucination, visual, loss of consciousness with occasional generalized seizures.His father stated that he had episodes of seeing vivid scenes which had occured in the past, usually at school. The patient also described seeing a room at the outset of the attack. He seemed to be in the room, but did not see himself. The room ould then go far off, as though he were looking at it through the wrong end of field glasses).LeftUnilateral temporalCortical abnormality found at the temporal tip and undersurfaceInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
26dL.G.Penfield & Perot1963Patient was unable to respond but made a little sound. On renewal of the stimulation he said, "Chant, une chanson." He explained it was a song he had heard before. When asked whether it was someone singing or an orchestra, he only said he seemed to hear it.Familiarity14MUnspecifiedEpilepsy9Head trauma (3 years old).General body "fullness", experiential hallucination, visual, loss of consciousness with occasional generalized seizures.The patient also described seeing a room at an attack. He seemed to be in the room, but did not see himself. The room would then go far off, as though he were looking at it through the wrong end of field glasses. LeftUnilateral temporalCortical abnormality found at the temporal tip and undersurfaceSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
27aC.M.Penfield & Perot1963She said, "Like something that I have heard before." Familiarity21FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion, a feeling of familiarity, automatism.Interpretive illusion (a feeling of familiarity).LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
27bC.M.Penfield & Perot1963"I am having another one. I can't remember it. It seems like I was in my house." When asked where, she said "In the hallway, going towards my bedroom." Personal semantics21FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion, a feeling of familiarity, automatism.Interpretive illusion (a feeling of familiarity).LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
27cC.M.Penfield & Perot1963"I feel like this is the beginning of one. I was in the hospital and I was with the nurse's aide and she was telling me she had to go shopping." "Which hospital was it?" "The hospital we are in now." "Where were you, on what floor?" "I was on the fourth floor, in bed." "Who else was there with you?" "There were just us two." "Could you see her?" "Yes." "Do you know her name?" "The nurse's aide, the little Greek one." Episodic21FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion, a feeling of familiarity, automatism.Interpretive illusion (a feeling of familiarity).LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
27dC.M.Penfield & Perot1963 She said, "I see them and they are talking to me about a spell."Who is saying it ? "Dr. Wilder Penfield." Unclassifiable21FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion, a feeling of familiarity, automatism.Interpretive illusion (a feeling of familiarity).LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
27eC.M.Penfield & Perot1963"The people are walking down the trays." She was asked if she saw them or heard them. "I saw them and I heard you." She was asked where this took place. She replied that it was at home in Detroit, "Maple Street, St. Claire Shores, Michigan." Where were you ? "I was in the house." Were they in the house ? "I can't remember what happened."Episodic21FUnspecifiedEpilepsy10UnspecifiedInterpretive illusion, a feeling of familiarity, automatism.Interpretive illusion (a feeling of familiarity).LeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
28aT.S.Penfield & Perot1963 After about ten seconds he said, "I feel as though I was in the bathroom at school." When asked about it, he said, "It was just a sort of a flash-back." Personal semantics19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy2UnspecifiedThoracic sensation, sensation in right hand and arm, experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with occasional generalized seizure. Many of his attacks were precipitated by music, especially modern jazz.The hallucinatory component was usuallly some form of memory of himself reaching for something. Once at school he felt a seizure grasp something. Suddenly he experienced performing exactly the same movement. He saw this as though he were "reviewing a scene in a movie."RightUnilateral temporalRight temporal insisural sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
28bT.S.Penfield & Perot1963 Patient said "Nothing." Then he added "A slight blurring on the street corner." When asked where, he said: "South Bend, Indiana, Jacob and Washington". When asked about it, he said he seemed to be looking at himself at a younger age.Personal semantics19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy2UnspecifiedThoracic sensation, sensation in right hand and arm, experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with occasional generalized seizure. Many of his attacks were precipitated by music, especially modern jazz.The hallucinatory component was usuallly some form of memory of himself reaching for something. Once at school he felt a seizure grasp something. Suddenly he experienced performing exactly the same movement. He saw this as though he were "reviewing a scene in a movie."RightUnilateral temporalRight temporal insisural sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
28cT.S.Penfield & Perot1963"I feel as though I am going into an attack." When asked why, he said, "That music, from the stage hit 'Guys and Dolls'." When asked which song in this play, he said he did not remember. When asked whether he remembered it, he replied that it was more like it was when, "I was listening to it." It was an orchestration. When asked whether he seemed to be there or was remembering it, he said, "I seemed to be there."Personal semantics19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy2UnspecifiedThoracic sensation, sensation in right hand and arm, experiential hallucination (visual), automatism with occasional generalized seizure. Many of his attacks were precipitated by music, especially modern jazz.The hallucinatory component was usuallly some form of memory of himself reaching for something. Once at school he felt a seizure grasp something. Suddenly he experienced performing exactly the same movement. He saw this as though he were "reviewing a scene in a movie."RightUnilateral temporalRight temporal insisural sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
29aJ.T.Penfield & Perot1963As soon as the current was turned on, the patient exclaimed in great surprise: "Yes, Doctor, yes, Doctor! Now I hear people laughingPersonal semantics21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedCephalic sensation, automatism.NoneRightUnilateral temporalGliomaSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
30aS.S.Penfield & Perot1963"Flash-back." She said she was thinking of when her mother went to the hospital. Personal semantics20FUnspecifiedEpilepsy18UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation, experiential hallucination - unclassified type, brief loss of awareness or infrequently a generalized seizure."I may see something before me at the time, not as a visual impression perceived externally, but something as seen within my mind. This thing reminds me of something else, which reminds me of something else, and there is a chain of association which follows." This was apparently never stereotyped and she could not remember any specific examples.RightUnilateral temporalTemporal scleroisSuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
30bS.S.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, a flash-back." She said she was thinking about her dog.Personal semantics20FUnspecifiedEpilepsy18UnspecifiedAn epigastric sensation, experiential hallucination (unclassified type), brief loss of awareness or infrequently a generalized seizure.I may see something before me at the time, not as a visual impression perceived externally, but something as seen within my mind. This thing reminds me of something else, which reminds me of something else, and there is a chain of association which follows. This was apparently never stereotyped and she could not remember any specific examples.RightUnilateral temporalTemporal scleroisAmygdalaRightNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31aA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"Some crazy things ran through my mind. I was younger, at school. I was playing with a polo bat." When asked, he said he remembers doing this when going to school at about the age of 10. Personal semantics19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31bA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"See if it comes again." Immediately upon application of the electrode, he said: "Yes, get out." It was a man's voice in a pool room, telling A.P. to get out. When asked, he said: "I have been in a pool room before; it might be that same one or it might not."Episodic19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31cA.P.Penfield & Perot1963He said "Tokyo." Electrode kept in place for some time. Patient said "There are voices but I cannot get what they are saying - Tokike." He repeated the word, "Tokike." When asked how to spell it, he said, "I do not know - t-o-k-i or something like that." Unclassifiable19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31dA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, it is coming again. It is water. It sounds like a toilet flushing or a dog barking." When asked where this was, he said he did not know. Wen asked, he said that "the toilet flushed first and then the dog started to bark." Unclassifiable19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31eA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"In my ears there seems to be music." When asked what tune, while the electrode was still on, he said, "I don't know, but your voice sounds as if it is in the distance." Unclassifiable19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31fA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"Yes, music again." When asked if it was an orchestra or someone singing, he said, "It is a girl or a woman singing, but I am still unable to get the tune. It came from either a record player or a radio." Unclassifiable19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
31gA.P.Penfield & Perot1963"Shoulder, shoulder, is echoing." He seemed to have slight difficulty in speech. He then said, "Stay still. Someone is telling to stay still." After withdrawal of the electrode he said he had an electric sensation from the finger tips to the shoulder on the right. After this sensation someone was telling to stay still. "My eyes started staring and then someone kept repeating 'stay still' ". When asked he said he did not know who it was but it might have been a doctor.Unclassifiable19MUnspecifiedEpilepsy6Lower right homonymous quadranopsiaInitial automatism or cephalic sensation and desire to stare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD40-100Hz - pulses 2-5msMonopolarAwake surgery1-5VPenfield, W., & Perot, P. (1963). The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86(4), 595-696.
32aSingle caseChapman & Weingarten1967He reported he was reexperiencing an epoch from his own past. It concerned his entering a hospital in a small city where he had lived seven or eight years previously he stated that he could see the people and the places vividly and call recall their names. The episode concerned entering the hospital and greeting a nurse, the visual aspect dominated his spontaneous recall but other features such as sounds smells and emotions were said to be present. On restimulation on the sites the same experience was induced, the interviewer asked for details and the patient replied that he would be able to furnish details if the stimulus was repeated again. When the stimulus began again, he directed his attention to the details, sought and was able to describe them. The patient said that the hospital and his contacts with doctor and nurse were extremely important events in his life, but that the specific epoch reexeprienced did not stand out as a particularly meaningful. He had completely forgotten the specific episode (Chapman et al., 1967). Feels like he is at white memorial hospital and is age 8 (Weingarten et al., 1976)Episodic21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32bSingle caseChapman & Weingarten1967He reported he was reexperiencing an epoch from his own past. It concerned his entering a hospital in a small city where he had lived seven or eight years previously he stated that he could see the people and the places vividly and call recall their names. The episode concerned entering the hospital and greeting a nurse, the visual aspect dominated his spontaneous recall but other features such as sounds smells and emotions were said to be present. On restimulation on the sites the same experience was induced, the interviewer asked for details and the patient replied that he would be able to furnish details if the stimulus was repeated again. When the stimulus began again, he directed his attention to the details, sought and was able to describe them. The patient said that the hospital and his contacts with doctor and nurse were extremely important events in his life, but that the specific epoch reexeprienced did not stand out as a particularly meaningful (Chapman et al.). He had completely forgotten the specific episode. Feels like he is at white memorial hospital and is age 8 (Weingarten et al.)Episodic21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32cSingle caseChapman & Weingarten1967He reported he was reexperiencing an epoch from his own past. It concerned his entering a hospital in a small city where he had lived seven or eight years previously he stated that he could see the people and the places vividly and call recall their names. The episode concerned entering the hospital and greeting a nurse, the visual aspect dominated his spontaneous recall but other features such as sounds smells and emotions were said to be present. On restimulation on the sites the same experience was induced, the interviewer asked for details and the patient replied that he would be able to furnish details if the stimulus was repeated again. When the stimulus began again, he directed his attention to the details, sought and was able to describe them. The patient said that the hospital and his contacts with doctor and nurse were extremely important events in his life, but that the specific epoch reexeprienced did not stand out as a particularly meaningful. He had completely forgotten the specific episode. Feels like he is at white memorial hospital and is age 8, (Weingarten et al.)Episodic21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32dSingle caseChapman1967Fragments of a television commercial (these latter episodes were not experienced as though he were reliving an episode from the past although they were associated with feelings of familarity)Semantic21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftADBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32eSingle caseChapman1967A visual scene of rabbits playing together (these latter episodes were not experienced as though he were reliving an episode from the past although they were associated with feelings of familarity)Unclassifiable21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32fSingle caseChapman1967The rules of a chilhood game (these latter episodes were not experienced as though he were reliving an episode from the past although they were associated with feelings of familarity).Unclassifiable21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
32gSingle caseChapman1967The feelings associated with falling into a deep hole when he was a child (these latter episodes were not experienced as though he were reliving an episode from the past although they were associated with feelings of familarity).Unclassifiable21MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedStare, automatism (sniffing, followed by lip smacking).NoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedMiddle temporal gyrusLeftADMedial temporalBiphasic10Hz - unspecified pulsesBipolarSEEG15V-3mAChapman, L. F., Walter, R. D., Markham, C. H., Rand, R. W., & Crandall, P. H. (1966). Memory changes induced by stimulation of hippocampus or amygdala in epilepsy patients with implanted electrodes. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 92, 50-56.
33anHorowitz1968/1970My sons walking.Personal semanticsUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEGUnspecifiedHorowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
34aUnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970"Flashes - Mother talking on phone with doctor, next people from scool-waxes and wanes, now it's flashes".Personal semanticsUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
35a UnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970A closet, familiar.FamiliarityUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
36aUnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970A room, familiar.FamiliarityUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
37a UnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970Round room off in the side, remembered from when a little girl.UnclassifiableUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
38aUnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970Self sitting giving her sister a "sickle cell" treatment (injection).EpisodicUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
39a UnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970A cherry grove, familiar - near home, changing into a single tree, then into a wire "attached to the TV camera at which the patient had been staring."UnclassifiableUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
40a UnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970Three boys playing on a swing in the yard. One was the patient's youngest son. (Patient did not recall even seeing this).Personal semanticsUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified (20-100 biphasic rectangular pulses, pulses 1ms). BipolarSEEG1-11mA (unspecified for each EBS)Horowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
41aUnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970A psychomotor seizure developed for a period of one minute, in which the patient looked about with a startled expression, saying, "who, who,who," and fumbled with his clothes. Following this he returned to the coherent, alert, and communicative mental state that preceded the stimulation. He reported having seen an attractive woman whom he identified as a hospital worker enter the room carrying a pink, plaster dummy in the form of a woman. She appealed to be smoothing over the plaster just as the doctor had done when applying his cast "to mend his arm." While telling this, the patient patted the plaster cast of his broken arm, saying, "like this." He stated that the woman was going to "fix things up." The dummy he associated with the mannikins he worked with in a department store. He lost his job because of a psychomotor seizure in the company cafeteria, but it was the best job he had ever had and he wished he had one like it now. Just prior to the stimulation the patient had been looking carefully at his broken arm and talking of his inability to work because of it. Unclassifiable40MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)LeftADBiphasic100Hz - pulses 1msBipolarSEEG10VHorowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
42a UnspecifiedHorowitz1968/1970At the onset of the stimulation, the patient facial expression changed and he began to look and turned around his head to the right. He said that he saw the investigator's glasses turning an orangle color that changed shape "every split second" and continue to" travel" to the right. Approximately one minute later, he reported seeing people he knew "50 years ago", one of them, a boy standing on the street. This was associated with an unusually prolonged left limbic after-discharge lasted 4 minutes and 30 seconds while the patient responded to questions in a more obtunded manner than prior to the stimulation.Personal semantics18MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedUnspecifiedHippocampusLeftADLeft limbicBiphasic40Hz - pulses 1msBipolarSEEG17V-11mAHorowitz, M.J., Adam, J.E., Rutkin, B.B. Visual imagery on brain stimulation (1968). Arch Gen Psychiatry; 19(4):469-86. Horowitz, M. J., & Adams, J. E. (1970). Hallucinations on brain stimulation: evidence for revision of the Penfield hypothesis. In Origin and mechanisms of hallucinations (pp. 13-22). Springer US.
43aS.I.F. (Case 2)Ferguson1969Olfactory response described as a smell of fish, followed by a vivid visual experience of a scene of green water, people of small size fishing from a pier, and a Howard Johnson restaurant.Strangeness with memory31MRightEpilepsy19Fall from a treeVisual aura, feeling that the objects are away from him small and green, left arm paresthesia, left arm rise and version of the head to the right, sometimes generalization.Visual auraLeftPost-central initially and then bilateral temporalVentricular enlargementAmygdalaLeftNo AD30-50Hz - pulses 1msBipolarDepth electodes + ECOG3-7VFerguson, S. M., Rayport, M., KASS, W., GARDNER, R., Weiner, H., & Reiser, M. F. (1969). Similarities in mental content of psychotic states, spontaneous seizures, dreams, and responses to electrical brain stimulation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 31(6), 479-498.
44aI.G.Nashold1970"Calms all the way down, memory of something that went on in my system during 1961, thought I smelled something that reminded me of South Dakota" (with inhibition of choreic movements, breathes easier, nasal flares during smell, feeling of generalized calmness). The smell was not excatly described by the patient. Each time it occured he was aware of a vivid memory of his sister's home in South Dakota which he had not visited since 1961. He had had no recent contact with his sister nor were there any circumstances during his hospitalization that made him think of her. The smell sensation was accompanied by flaring of both nares. In addition we noted a generalised inhibition oh his unvoluntary movements during the period of stimulation and he was able to breathe more easily and described a feeling of "calmness" in his muscles probably due to the transient inhibition of the chorea.Personal semantics40MUnspecifiedChoreaNo epilepsyChoreaNo seizureNo seizureNoneNoneUnspecifiedThalamusRightUnspecifiedUnspecified (square waves of 0.1 to 1ms duration. Single as well as repetitive shocks were delivered to the electrode with frequencies ranging from 5, 25, 60, 120 et 300Hz). BipolarDepth electrodes + ECOG2-3mANashold, B. S., & Wilson, W. P. (1970). Olfactory hallucinations evoked from stimulation of human thalamus. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 32(2-5), 298-306.
45aPatient 36Weingarten1976Hears recitations from Mother Goose Rhymes.SemanticUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnspecifiedUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusLeftADBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10Hz - pulses 100microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46a Patient 53 Weingarten1976The patient felt she was back in her bedroom in her childhood.Personal semantics24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1Hz/10Hz - pulses 100microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46bPatient 53 Weingarten1976She felt she was in Cambridge in Massassuchetts with a date.Episodic24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusRightADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46cPatient 53 Weingarten1976The patient felt as though she were having a recurrent dream in which she saw two dogs in her old house.Reminiscence of a dream24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedHippocampusRightADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46dPatient 53 Weingarten1976She felt as though she was standing around the chlorinated swimming pool of YMCA as a child.Personal semantics24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedHippocampusRightADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46ePatient 53 Weingarten1976The patient envisioned an image of an old church, she then saw the YMCA building and then her old high school.Personal semantics24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusLeftADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
46fPatient 53 Weingarten1976She felt she was standing in the backyard of her old house on a lawn between the house and the badminton court, she could see badminton rackets lying on the ground with a cover on them.Personal semantics24FRightEpilepsy18Born by caesarean section, memory functions difficulties at work.Dreamlike trances in childhood. In adulthood, strong feeling of familiaritty, dropping sensation in stomach, extreme fear and vertigo, automatisms, numble incoherently, then amnesia.Sees " people storming a castle which had a purple color".RightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusLeftADDepth strutcure of the left sideBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnspecified precisely for each EBS (5-20V)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
47aPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1976Feels like she is in scene in home in her past (Weingarten et al., 1976). A scene in her home (Halgren et al., 1978).Personal semantics32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedUnspecifiedDeja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusLeftUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
47bPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1976Someone stuck popsicle stick down her throat in Iowa.Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedUnspecifiedDeja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
47cPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1976Watching a football game.Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedUnspecifiedDeja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusRightUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
47dPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1976Lying on a couch (also in Halgren et al., 1978).Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20UnspecifiedUnspecifiedDeja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusRightUnspecifiedBiphasicUnspecified precisely for each EBS (1 Hz/10 Hz - pulses 100 microsec)BipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Weingarten, S. M., Cherlow, D. G., & Holmgren, E. (1977). The relationship of hallucinations to the depth structures of the temporal lobe. In Advances in Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery 2 (pp. 199-216). Springer Vienna.
47ePatient 49Halgren1978TV show: a soap opera.Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47fPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1978TV show: programmes regarding implants.Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47gPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1978TV show : programmes regarding... astronauts. The astronaut programme seems "like a dream a weird dream." She spontaneously remarked that she did not remember having had that dream before. Semantic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47hPatient 49Halgren1978The remainder of her hallucinations she reported to be specific memories: a trip to Yosemite or to Reading.Unclassifiable32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47iPatient 49Halgren1978A chocolate coke once she drunk in a small town.Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47jPatient 49Halgren1978Two memories of seizures one which had occured in junior high school.Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47kPatient 49Halgren1978Two memories of seizures ... one at home.Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47lPatient 49Weingarten & Halgren1978Events that presumably were of great personal importance were also remembered: her brother's graduation from college... (Halgren et al., 1978). Envisions brother's graduation from Valley state (Weingarten et al., 1976).Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47mPatient 49Halgren1978Events that presumably were of great personal importance were also remembered: [Personal folklore32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47nPatient 49Halgren1978Events that presumably were of great personal importance were also remembered : her son's first day at school. The latter memory was the only one that was repeated. It was not clear if the specific images were reexperienced or if the memories were only related. In all other cases repeated stimulus trains applied to the same site evoking potentials in the same recording areas would evoke apparently unrelated memories.Personal folklore32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
47oPatient 49Halgren1978A particular telephone conversation.Episodic32FUnspecifiedEpilepsy20Phobias, anxiety.Seizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.Deja-vuBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedDeep temporal lobe (but unspecified)UnspecifiedUnspecifiedBiphasic1-30Hz - pulses 100 microsecondsBipolarSEEGUnprecised precisely for each EBS (3.4-9.4 mA)Halgren, E., Walter, R. D., Cherlow, D. G., & Crandall, P.H. (1978). Mental phenomena evoked by electrical stimulation of the human hippocampal formation and amygdala. Brain, 101(1), 83-115.
48aPatient 2Gloor1982Seizures that were ushered in by an epigastric sensation and an experience she described as seeing or thinking of two comic strip characters "Philomene" and "Jacquot". She told us that as a child she had often looked at this comic strip with her mother. This experience was also elicited by left amygaloid stimulation without afterdischarge.Semantic35FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedSeizure begins by a general rigidity. She was able to hear and perform certain movements, but she was unable to talk. Intense fear accompanied these attacks. As she grew older, her seizures assumed a stronger motor involvement. Usually her head would turn to the right, followed by loss of consciousness and right-sided jerking. These seizures were sometimes preceded by an aura of "buzzing" and deja-vu.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEGUnspecifiedGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49a Patient 5Gloor1982Immediately upon stimulation the patient said Personal semantics22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightADTemporalBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG2mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49bPatient 5Gloor1982He again became nauseated felt that he was somewhere in the country with Tracy at a place where he had been before and felt that it was dark and raining, he was extremley frightened and pale.Personal semantics22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightADLimbic structures and lateral temporalBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG3mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49cPatient 5Gloor1982"Yep yep yep , I am balancing on the edge of a fountain. I have often experienced this in petit mal. It is like I am in a old story book. I am afraid to fall in the fountain." Strangeness with memory22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedParahippocampal gyrusRightADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG3mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49ePatient 5Gloor1982Something experienced before.Familiarity22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG2mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49e'Patient 5Gloor1982"Now what is this?" He smelled somethingFamiliarity22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG2mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
49e''Patient 5Gloor1982"Something to do with animals." The patient claimed he had experienced it before...Familiarity22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedA dreamlike state (his own words) with "deja-vu" associated with a feeling of "suffering great embarrassment" and of being forced "into another time and place" to the point of "losing awareness of everyone and everything." Amnesia and ambulatory automatism sometimes accompanied these attacks. He also had seizures without an aura that involved postural movements of the extremities followed by a tonic-clonic convulsion.Deja-vuUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG3mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
50aPatient 3Gloor1982"It feels like a dream, some people talking to my back. I can hear their voices, but I don't understand what they are saying. There were two voices both male." He later thought this was more like a previous memory of an experience than a dream.Strangeness with memory32MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRising epigastric sensation, loss of contact, complex automatism, sometimes generalizationNoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
50bPatient 3Gloor1982"Whats' going on here? I have a feeling of people coming back. It is this Indian guy who was here yesterday." When asked wether he could see him, he said it was a feeling but he was able to describe the Indian's clothing. "He is wearing a dark suit."Strangeness with memory32MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRising epigastric sensation, loss of contact, complex automatism, sometimes generalizationNoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedHippocampusLeftADMedial temporalBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1.5mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
50cPatient 3Gloor1982"It feels like someone talking to a child." The voice was female (he later thought it could have been his wife). He could not understand what the voice said. He thought this experience was in his memory.Familiarity32MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRising epigastric sensation, loss of contact, complex automatism, sometimes generalizationNoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1.5mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
50dPatient 3Gloor1982"I see a guy in a TV commercial, I believe it is a Coca-cola commercial. I think the guy is Sidney Poitier. He is wearing a brown suit."Semantic32MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRising epigastric sensation, loss of contact, complex automatism, sometimes generalizationNoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG 1.5mAGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
51a ASGloor1982She pointed with her right hand in front of her "I was going to this place it's like a meeting area. The gentleman who keeps all tickets would be there."Unclassifiable36FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAutomatism.NoneUnspecifiedUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedHippocampusLeftNo ADBiphasicUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG2-12VGloor, P., Olivier, A., Quesney, L. F., Andermann, F., & Horowitz, S. (1982). The role of the limbic system in experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Annals of neurology, 12(2), 129-144.
52aHerve KE (FBB)/Patient 2 (JB)Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994Two minutes after the seizure started the patient stated "I am home, I see myself in a bedroom with my girlfriend." "I had the impression of being home in my bedroom. When I feel sick, I look at myself in the mirror, it's the taste in my mouth of an artichoke, very bad, that also took me in the balls... You had a very elongated figure, you were funny as if you were a foreigner." He heard a buzz and had a feeling of having lost his body.Personal semantics24MRightEpilepsy2Neonatal anoxia, alcoholism.Gustatory hallucinations, occipital headache , genitals dysesthesia, anguish with death sensation, tachycardia, profuse sweating, sensation of falling down.Gustatory hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporal (perisylvian)UnspecifiedHippocampusRightADSuperior perisylvian (supratemporal)Biphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
52bHerve KE (FBB)/Patient 2 (JB)Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994Patient recalled that he had been "riding a bicycle over a dirt road."Unclassifiable24MRightEpilepsy2Neonatal anoxia, alcoholism.Gustatory hallucinations, occipital headache , genitals dysesthesia, anguish with death sensation, tachycardia, profuse sweating, sensation of falling down.Gustatory hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporal (perisylvian)UnspecifiedHippocampusRightADSuperior perisylvian (supratemporal)Biphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
52cHerve KE (FBB)/Patient 2 (JB)Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I saw myself elsewhere at the corner of the counter in a hunting jacket. I was having a drink." Personal semantics24MRightEpilepsy2Neonatal anoxia, alcoholism.Gustatory hallucinations, occipital headache , genitals dysesthesia, anguish with death sensation, tachycardia, profuse sweating, sensation of falling down.Gustatory hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporal (perisylvian)UnspecifiedHippocampusRightADMedial and lateral temporal, parietalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
52dHerve KE (FBB)/Patient 2 (JB)Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I was in my kitchen in front of the sink, dressed as usual (pullover, cordury pants, high boots)." Personal semantics24MRightEpilepsy2Neonatal anoxia, alcoholism.Gustatory hallucinations, occipital headache , genitals dysesthesia, anguish with death sensation, tachycardia, profuse sweating, sensation of falling down.Gustatory hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporal (perisylvian)UnspecifiedTemporal poleRightADMedial and lateral temporal, parietalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
53aJoseph SA/patient 12Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I think of my sister and her husband, before my brother in law had the accident. It is sad." Personal semantics21MRightEpilepsy7Temporal vascular malformation (surgery at 18 years old).Beginning with a pleasant aesthetic sensation (he looks at an object that is not deformed but suddenly he found it beautiful, which makes him very happy). At the same time, he experiences forced thoughts (a voice as in a dream, he thinks that people speak about him adn want to hurt him). At the same time he feels a bitter taste. He sucks his left thumb and he is then agitated.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedOccipital lobeRightADMedial temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
54aJean Pierre DU / Patient 13Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I feel discomfort, something very strange. I am in a small village where everyone knows each other, on the sea coast, there is a couple who are looking for coale to put in the furnace. In houses in the north there is a trap door for coal and one can see what is happening there... I had the impression of having seen those people, and I felt something in the stomach like a ball... that which I saw, could have been charcoals, flowers, anything. It's more like an idea than an image that was presented rapidly in a vey fleeting manner, some strange thing without relation to reality, but not necessarily with life-like colours". The the order of signs was "first the image, then a burning in the stomach and then the discomfort."Personal semantics28MBilateralEpilepsy5Neonatal anoxia.Feeling of discomfort, epigastric constriction, feeling of strangeness and of unreal environment, with deja-vecu, loss of contact, automatisms.NoneRightUnilateral temporalRight temporal tumorHippocampusRightADMedial and lateral temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
55aHuguette DE/patient 16Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"It was as if i was at home, moma was there beside me like in a movie." Personal semantics16,5FRightEpilepsy15Diphtheria.Feeling of anguish, chest tightness, loss of contact and automatisms.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedTemporal poleRightADInsulaBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
55bHuguette DE/patient 16Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I saw the house and the streets where I lived in Germany. It disappeared rapidly and I was again in the operating room." Personal semantics16,5FRightEpilepsy15Diphtheria.Feeling of anguish, chest tightness, loss of contact and automatisms.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedTemporal poleRightADInsulaBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
55cHuguette DE/patient 16Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994"I was at the house in the kitchen in Germany, in the town where i was born. My mother and aunt were there preparing a cake. Like in a black and white film but in relief." Personal semantics16,5FRightEpilepsy15Diphtheria.Feeling of anguish, chest tightness, loss of contact and automatisms.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedTemporal poleRightADInsulaBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
55dHuguette DE/ patient 16Brunet Bourgin & Bancaud1984/1994She described a precise memory of a lecture she had attended the day before the operation.Episodic16,5FRightEpilepsy15Diphtheria.Feeling of anguish, chest tightness, loss of contact and automatisms.NoneRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedTemporal poleRightADInsulaBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2-12VBrunet-Bourgin, F. (1984). S
56aSingle caseMorris 1984The patient recognized a famliar song he had not heard in many years. The signer was male with a British accent, and the verse went "Girl for making the morning brighter, girl for making the nightime nicer". The patient could not remember the name of the song.Semantic17MRightEpilepsyBeginning: early childhoodUnspecifiedHallucination of flashing lights or moving inanimate objects in the right visual field. This symptom was frequently followed by a brief period of unresponsiveness and less of often by a generalised tonic-clonic convulsionVisual hallucinationsLeftParieto-occipitalNormal MRISuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsMonopolarECOG1-15mA (unspecified for each EBS)Morris, H. H., Luders, H., Lesser, R. P., Dinner, D. S., & Hahn, J. (1984). Transient neuropsychological abnormalities (including Gerstmann's Syndrome) during cortical stimulation. Neurology, 34(7), 877-877.
56bSingle caseMorris 1984Stimulation resulted in the patient's hearing the lyrics and music of "Rocking Robin". Interestingly the words and the music lasted longer far longer than did the 5 to 10 seconds stimulation. One minute and 40 seconds after the stimulus, the patient could still hear the music, but not the words. It was a full 2 minutes before the music was gone as well.Semantic17MRightEpilepsyBeginning: early childhoodUnspecifiedHallucination of flashing lights or moving inanimate objects in the right visual field. This symptom was frequently followed by a brief period of unresponsiveness and less of often by a generalised tonic-clonic convulsionVisual hallucinationsLeftParieto-occipitalNormal CTSuperior temporal gyrusLeftADUnspecified50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsMonopolarECOG1-15mA (unspecified for each EBS)Morris, H. H., Luders, H., Lesser, R. P., Dinner, D. S., & Hahn, J. (1984). Transient neuropsychological abnormalities (including Gerstmann's Syndrome) during cortical stimulation. Neurology, 34(7), 877-877.
56cSingle caseMorris 1984The patient reporteed hearing "something like a Bugs Bunny cartoon".Semantic17MRightEpilepsyBeginning: early childhoodUnspecifiedHallucination of flashing lights or moving inanimate objects in the right visual field. This symptom was frequently followed by a brief period of unresponsiveness and less of often by a generalised tonic-clonic convulsionVisual hallucinationsLeftParieto-occipitalNormal CTSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsMonopolarECOG1-15mA (unspecified for each EBS)Morris, H. H., Luders, H., Lesser, R. P., Dinner, D. S., & Hahn, J. (1984). Transient neuropsychological abnormalities (including Gerstmann's Syndrome) during cortical stimulation. Neurology, 34(7), 877-877.
56dSingle caseMorris 1984Approximately one hour after electrode C7 was first stimulated, it was restimulated without the patient's being aware what site was being tested. This time the patient heard a male voice, but did not recognize the song or note a Bristish accent. Unclassifiable17MRightEpilepsyBeginning: early childhoodUnspecifiedHallucination of flashing lights or moving inanimate objects in the right visual field. This symptom was frequently followed by a brief period of unresponsiveness and less of often by a generalised tonic-clonic convulsionVisual hallucinationsLeftParieto-occipitalNormal CTSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNoa50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsMonopolarECOG1-15mA (unspecified for each EBS)Morris, H. H., Luders, H., Lesser, R. P., Dinner, D. S., & Hahn, J. (1984). Transient neuropsychological abnormalities (including Gerstmann's Syndrome) during cortical stimulation. Neurology, 34(7), 877-877.
57aUnspecifiedGloor 1990The patient immediately said, "Yes". When asked what he had felt, he found it difficult to describe. It was a feeling like falling into water. When asked to elaborate, he replied that it was as if something had covered his eyes, nose and mouth. To the question whether the feeling was scary, he answered "Yes and no". He also described it as one of strangeness and it recalled memories of small attacks he had had.Unclassifiable22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightNo ADUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1mAGloor, P. (1990). Experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain, 113(6), 1673-1694.
57bUnspecifiedGloor 1990He immediately exclaimed, "Now", and then quite excitedly added, "Could you do it again, doctor?" When asked why he wanted the stimulation repeated, he explained that when it began he had the words on his lips to describe the feeling, but then later could not do so. Again there was no after-discharge.Unclassifiable22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightNo ADUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1mAGloor, P. (1990). Experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain, 113(6), 1673-1694.
57cUnspecifiedGloor 1990The patient opened his mouth with an astonished look, sat up and said that he now knew what it was. It was the feeling of being at a picnic in Brewer Park in Ottawa: "A kid was coming up to me to push me into the water. It was a certain time, a big special day during the summer holidays and the boy was going to push me into the water. I was pushed by somebody stronger than me. I had experienced that same feeling when I had 'petit mals' before". He called it "a bad feeling". On questioning, he said this had been a real event in his life when he was about 8 years old. He remembered some additional details such as how "a big fellow" had pushed him under the water and kept his head submerged. Asked whether during the stimulation he had actually seen himself being chased by the "big fellow", he said, "No", but it was a feeling as if he had been there and was being chased. He believed this event had occurred shortly before his seizures had started.Episodic22MUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightNo ADUnspecified (pulses 0.5ms)BipolarSEEG1mAGloor, P. (1990). Experiential phenomena of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain, 113(6), 1673-1694.
58aSingle caseFried1997The patient reported hearing the theme music from film Star Wars, while at the same time "seeing birds" and feeling like "going through a tunnel."SemanticUnspecifiedMUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedECOGUnspecifiedFried, I. (1997). Auras and experiential responses arising in the temporal lobe. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9(3), 420-428.
58bSingle caseFried1997He first reported "something like a radio station."UnclassifiableUnspecifiedMUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedECOGUnspecifiedFried, I. (1997). Auras and experiential responses arising in the temporal lobe. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9(3), 420-428.
58cSingle caseFried1997Then when the stimulation was repeated, he reported hearing music, weddind receptions bells and "here comes the Bride". He then reported "seeing an angel on a christmas tree." SemanticUnspecifiedMUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedECOGUnspecifiedFried, I. (1997). Auras and experiential responses arising in the temporal lobe. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9(3), 420-428.
58dSingle caseFried1997When the stimulation was repeated once more, he reported a scene of "throwing the wedding bouquet" and "some song." These vivid auditory and visual fragments were related to a wedding scene, yet they did not represent a particular recollection, and the patient was aware that they were unreal.UnclassifiableUnspecifiedMUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedLeftUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedInferior temporal gyrusLeftNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedECOGUnspecifiedFried, I. (1997). Auras and experiential responses arising in the temporal lobe. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 9(3), 420-428.
59aC.P.Chauvel & Halgren1997"I saw myself in the house in the kitchen. There was my husband and my son who were asking me if everything was alright. I thought I caught the edge of the window. I had this feeling of tightness in the stomach and then it reached the throat and made me want to vomit, and then it came down to the ovaries. After the kitchen, I thought I was on the bridge with my husband, my son and my father. When I had that feeling of tightness in the throat I thought about my son in the garden. After the bridge, I saw myself in the garden trying to plant tomatoes. This is exactly what I experienced that day with my son."Episodic26FUnspecifiedEpilepsyUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightUnspecifiedUnspecifiedUnspecifiedSEEGUnspecifiedChauvel, P., & Halgren, E. (1997). Les illusions et les hallucinations complexes dans les crises du lobe temporal. Neuro-psy, 12(6), 639-646.
60aSingle caseMoriarity2000Theme song from the Flinestones cartoon, which he had watched 5-15 years of age. The patient reported hearing a "lot of the Flinestones" at three electrode pairs (9-10). Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftAD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60bSingle caseMoriarity2000Theme song from the Flinestones cartoon, which he had watched 5-15 years of age. The patient reported hearing a "lot of the Flinestones" at three electrode pairs (10-15).Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftAD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60cSingle caseMoriarity2000Theme song from the Flinestones cartoon, which he had watched 5-15 years of age. The patient reported hearing a "lot of the Flinestones" at three electrode pairs (1-2). Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisFrontal (inferior frontal gyrus)LeftAD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60dSingle caseMoriarity2000As stimulation proceeded he was able, during stimulation, to repeat the words that he was hearing and to identify the song as "Wish you were here" of the Pink Floyd. When questioned later, the patient reported listening to that song from the age of 11 to the present. Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60eSingle caseMoriarity2000As stimulation proceeded he was able, during stimulation, to repeat the words that he was hearing and to identify the song as "Wish you were here" of the Pink Floyd. When questioned later, the patient reported listening to that song from the age of 11 to the present. Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60fSingle caseMoriarity2000Voice of a baseball announcer (Richie Ashburn) calling an unidentified game involving the Philadelphia Phillies. The patient reported listening to this anouncer throughout his childhood and adult life until the annoucer's death in 1997.Semantic34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60gSingle caseMoriarity2000The patient reported hearing a familiar female voice singing, athough he could not identify the singer of this song.Familiarity34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
60hSingle caseMoriarity2000The patient reported hearing a familiar female voice singing, athough he could not identify the singer of this song.Familiarity34MRightEpilepsy26UnspecifiedAura auditory hallucinations followed by staring, perioral and bilateral upperlimb automatisms and post ictal aphasia.Auditory hallucinationLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisSuperior temporal gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz -pulses 0.3msBipolarECOGmax threshold 10-15mAMoriarity, J. L., Boatman, D., Krauss, G. L., Storm, P. B., & Lenz, F. A. (2001). Human
61aA.M.Blanke2000"One could say that I have the impression that I was dancing, something like that. It seemed to me as if I was seeing children dancing and that I was carrying my dance shoes in my hands." Sensations were described as "no sounds, just images" which were fast and short without affective tone.Personal semantics27FUnspecifiedEpilepsy15UnspecifiedHer seizures were characterized initially by an epigastric sensation followed by a complex auditory hallucination (the patient felt the presence of an unknown women behind her on the right saying "No, no" or "DonA complex auditory hallucination (the patient felt the presence of an unknown woman behind her on the right saying UnspecifiedUnilateral temporalLeft posterior hemispheric atrophyFrontal (inferior frontal gyrus)RightNo AD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsBipolarECoG5.5-6mABlanke, O., Landis, T., & Seeck, M. (2000). Electrical cortical stimulation of the human prefrontal cortex evokes complex visual hallucinations. Epilepsy & Behavior, 1(5), 356-361.
62aLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you hear the little noise again? Patient: Yes...Except that I heard lyrics. A theater text I should have learned, but that I have not learned because I am here. Doctor: A text that you already know then. Patient: Yes. The patient recites a verse of the Misanthrope of MoliSemantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalitySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62bLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did it happen again? Patient: Yes but it was not the same. Doctor: So what did you hear? Patient: It was my dad. He told me when I was younger "Stop immediately!" He told me that one day. Doctor: And how old is this souvenir? Patient: I don't know I was 6 years old. It was 2 years ago.Episodic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalitySuperior temporal gyrusRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62cLPM2Curot 2017Patient: It was mummy's voice. She told me to go to bed. It's super weird every time I hearEpisodic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalitySuperior temporal gyrusRightADMedial temporal50 Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.4mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62dLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes. It was lyrics. Such as a store slogan. It was when I was in second year of primary school, when I went to the Spar and then we heard the same music but I do not know how to explain. Doctor: Was it an advertising music in that store? Patient: Yes. (The patient tries to sing it).Semantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityInsulaRightADMedial temporal, insulate50 Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.4mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62eLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did You feel something? Patient: Yes I heard Mc Donald's music. Doctor: How did it sound like this Mc Donald's music? Patient: It was like that "Semantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityInsulaRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62fLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes. The same thing. Doctor : Music of Mac Donald's? Patient: Yeah. Doctor: How long was it? Patient: One second.Semantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityInsulaRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.4mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62gLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: It was at a placePersonal semantics8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial and lateral temporal, insular and cingulate cortex50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62hLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes. I know. It was in Gnomeo and Juliette (a movie). It the same story as Romeo and Juliette. It was a small extract of Gnomeo and Juliette.Semantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial and lateral temporal, insular and cingulate cortex50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62iLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: What did you feel? Patient: Something that was in my dreams. Well, actually it was with a friend. We read a comic. And in fact it was a nightmare. And then after there a big beetle coming. Doctor: Was it a nightmare you have had long ago? Patient: Yes.I was 3-4 years old.Reminiscence of a dream8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial temporal, cingulate50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62jLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes it was when I saw the film. Gomeo and Juliette. This is a gnome with another gnome named Juliette. Doctor: Did you see that movie? Or did you see yourself watching that movie? Patient: No, I saw the film again. It was three or four months ago.Semantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62kLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes. The same thing. That's great. Doctor: Did you like that scene? Patient: Yeah I like that scene, because the frog was completely crazy and did not to say "You won't get it, you won't get it."Personal semantics8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
62lLPM2Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: Yes. It was the end of the movie "Gnomeo and Juliette." It was when all characters hailedSemantic8FRightEpilepsy4NoneHearing music or drumming, oral automatisms, breathing changes, loss of contact +/- loss of consciousness.Hearing music or drummingRightUnilateral temporalSuperior temporal sulcus and insula gyration abnormalityPerirhinal cortexRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
63aP2/FGM4Bartolomei & Barbeau & Curot2004/2017Doctor: What's happening? Patient: a hot feeling, a feeling of oppression. Doctor: Does it remind you something? Patient: It's unclear. It tries to comePersonal semantics30MUnspecifiedEpilepsy12Febrile seizures (1 year old).Deja-vu or reminiscences of souvenirs, laryngeal constriction.Deja-vu or deja-vecuRightUnilateral temporalHippocampal atrophyPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial temporal and a posterior and medial branch of the collateral sulcus 50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2mABartolomei, F., Barbeau, E., Gavaret, M., Guye, M., McGonigal, A., Regis, J., & Chauvel, P. (2004). Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja-vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology, 63(5), 858-864. Barbeau, E., Wendling, F., R
63bP2/FGM4Bartolomei & Barbeau & Curot2004/2017Patient: Something that had nothing to do with the lake. It was a neighbor with a motorcycle who passes very often in the street. It was one of my brother's friend. Doctor: Have you already seen that scene? Patient: Yes, very often. Doctor: When was the last time? Patient: About one month ago. Doctor: And how did you see that image? Patient: I saw the machine... The chromed part of a motor.Personal semantics30MUnspecifiedEpilepsy12Febrile seizures (1 year old).Deja-vu or reminiscences of souvenirs, laryngeal constriction.Deja-vu or deja-vecuRightUnilateral temporalHippocampal atrophyPerirhinal cortexRightADMedial temporal and a posterior and medial branch of the collateral sulcus 50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2.5mABartolomei, F., Barbeau, E., Gavaret, M., Guye, M., McGonigal, A., Regis, J., & Chauvel, P. (2004). Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja-vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology, 63(5), 858-864. Barbeau, E., Wendling, F., R
64aP3Bartolomei2004Described the prow of a steamer on the sea associated with a transient feeling of Familiarity.Familiarity29MUnspecifiedEpilepsy14NoneDeja-vu or deja-vecu, fear, epigastric discomfort, loss of contact.Deja-vu or deja-vecuLeftUnilateral temporalHippocampal atrophyPerirhinal cortexLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2mABartolomei, F., Barbeau, E., Gavaret, M., Guye, M., McGonigal, A., Regis, J., & Chauvel, P. (2004). Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja-vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology, 63(5), 858-864. Barbeau, E., Wendling, F., R
65aP7Bartolomei2004Scenes from her enfancy in which the patient was with her father in their kitchenPersonal semantics36FUnspecifiedEpilepsy32NoneEpigastric discomfort, loss of contact, anxiety.NoneRightUnilateral temporalRight amygdala gangliogliomaPerirhinal cortexRightNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mABartolomei, F., Barbeau, E., Gavaret, M., Guye, M., McGonigal, A., Regis, J., & Chauvel, P. (2004). Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja-vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology, 63(5), 858-864. Barbeau, E., Wendling, F., R
66aP8Bartolomei2004The reminiscence of a dream that he had had the night before, involving a scene from everyday life (a discussion with a colleague in their workplace).Reminiscence of a dream35MUnspecifiedEpilepsy11NoneLoss of contact.NoneLeftFrontalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mABartolomei, F., Barbeau, E., Gavaret, M., Guye, M., McGonigal, A., Regis, J., & Chauvel, P. (2004). Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja-vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology, 63(5), 858-864. Barbeau, E., Wendling, F., R
67aUnspecifiedBartolomei2004Stimulation evoked an olfactory hallucination of the scent of burned wood, which reminded the patient of a precise evening in Brittany on a beach around a campfire when she was 14 years old.EpisodicUnspecifiedFUnspecifiedEpilepsyLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataAmygdalaLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataLacking dataBipolarSEEGLacking dataCurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
68aSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)LeftUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
68bSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. (5V he reported that the details in the scene became more vivid).Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)LeftUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
68cSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. (He reported that the details in the scene became more vivid - same perceptions with contact 0).Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)RightUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
68dSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. (He reported that the details in the scene became more vivid - same perceptions with contact 1),Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)RightUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
68eSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. (He reported that the details in the scene became more vivid, same perceptions with contact 4).Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)LeftUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
68fSingle caseHamani2007He reported the sudden perception of being in a park with friends a familiar sensation to him, he felt he was younger around 20 yo. He recognized his epoch appropriate girlfriend among the people he did not see himself in the seen but instead he was the observer, the scene was in color, people were wearing identifiable clothes and were talking, but he could decipher what they were saying. (He reported that the details in the scene became more vivid, same perceptions with contact 5).Personal semantics50MUnspecifiedObesity0Diabetis, high blood pressure, sleep apnea.No seizureNo seizureNoneNoneNormal MRIHypothalamus (fornix)LeftUnspecified130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsMonopolarDepth electrodes3-5VHamani, C., McAndrews, M. P., Cohn, M., Oh, M., Zumsteg, D., Shapiro, C. M., ... & Lozano, A. M. (2008). Memory enhancement induced by hypothalamic/fornix deep brain stimulation. Annals of neurology, 63(1), 119-123.
69aPatient 2Vignal2007Reliving a parachute jump.Episodic49UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedNoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBilateralBilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisHippocampusRightADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG4VVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
70aPatient 5Vignal2007A familiar televison advertisment,.Semantic27UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedNoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightNo AD130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG4VVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
71a Patient 6Vignal2007Contryside scene frome childhood. "It's exactly the same as the last time, it's all come back to me, it's behind, it's always thoughts from childhood, it's always visual, it's a place behind the house, the field where my father put his car, near a lake, it's not always the same countryside. I've forgotten the story of this countryside. Yes it's pleasant because we were going to get the car from behind the house. It's a happy memory. It's never unpleasant."Personal semantics42UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedFebrile seizuresUnspecifiedDeja vecuLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisAmygdalaLeftADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG2mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
71bPatient6Vignal2007Contryside scene frome childhood. "It's exactly the same as the last time, it's all come back to me, it's behind, it's always thoughts from childhood, it's always visual, it's a place behind the house, the field where my father put his car, near a lake, it's not always the same countryside. I've forgotten the story of this countryside. Yes it's pleasant because we were going to get the car from behind the house. It's a happy memory. It's never unpleasant."Personal semantics42UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedFebrile seizuresUnspecifiedDeja vecuLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisParahippocampal gyrusLeftADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG2mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
72aPatient 7Vignal2007Frightening scene from childhood. Vision of a bald man dressed in black coming towards her from behind associated with a feeling of imminent death; she is pale with piloerection. "Always the same scene anesthesia with mask at the age of 14 years during tonsillectomy."Personal folklore31FRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedTonsillectomyUnspecifiedVisual hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG2mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
72bPatient 7Vignal2007Frightening scene from childhood. Vision of a bald man dressed in black coming towards her from behind associated with a feeling of imminent death; she is pale with piloerection. "Always the same scene anesthesia with mask at the age of 14 years during tonsillectomy."Personal folklore31FRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedTonsillectomuUnspecifiedVisual hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporalUnspecifiedAmygdalaRightADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG 3mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
73aPatient 10Vignal2007"I am starting to see lots of things loads of people it's still vague and strange. I've got an initial picture, a memory... I fell locked in again something to do with the evening, the night it's strange like after a party, sad things like a mixture of last night and this morning."Strangeness with memory23UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedFebrile seizuresUnspecifiedVisual hallucinationsBilateralBilateral temporalUnspecifiedHippocampusLeftADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG1.2mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
74aPatient 11Vignal2007Vision of a television show (French TV show "le millionaire").Semantic33UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedFebrile seizuresUnspecifiedVisual hallucinationsFrontale DFrontalRight superior temporal gyrus DNETAmygdalaRightADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG2.6mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
75aPatient 12Vignal2007Distant, unpleasant memory from sitting an exam that was supervised by a woman.Episodic18UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedPremature birthUnspecifiedDeja-vu and visual hallucinationsLeftOccipito-temporalLeft Parahippocampalal and fusiform gyrus DNETParahippocampal gyrusLeftADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG1.5mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
75bPatient 12Vignal2007Scenes from long ago accompanied by a sensations of deja-vecu.Unclassifiable18UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedPremature birthUnspecifiedDeja-vu and visual hallucinationsLeftOccipito-temporalLeft Parahippocampalal and fusiform gyrus DNETParahippocampal gyrusLeftADMedial temporal130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG1.5mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
76aPatient 14Vignal2007Familiar character from a film.Familiarity18UnspecifiedLeftEpilepsyUnspecifiedNoneUnspecifiedNoneUnspecifiedUnspecifiedLeft cingulate tumorAmygdalaLeftADMedial temporal, cingulate130Hz - pulses 60 microsecondsBipolarSEEG1.5mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
77aPatient 15Vignal2007"I seemyself playing the drums with people of my family listening to me."Episodic35UnspecifiedRightEpilepsyUnspecifiedNoneUnspecifiedVisual hallucinationsLeftUnilateral temporalTemporal pole DNETHippocampusRightADMedial temporal50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.5mAVignal, J. P., Maillard, L., McGonigal, A., & Chauvel, P. (2007). The dreamy state: hallucinations of autobiographic memory evoked by temporal lobe stimulations and seizures. Brain, 130(1), 88-99.
78a MPM1Curot 2017Patient: I saw myself as if I was in a yellow room the I have already seen. A yellow room that reminds me a hotel... No a hospital room. I saw a bed, a yellow wall. The same yellow color as in the 60s. Doctor: Did you see an image, a personal souvenir? Patient: Yes. It seems that it was a hospital room. There was an iron bed. It is former.Personal semantics48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78bMPM1Curot 2017Patient: I saw something I have already seen. It was a building and a floor. I had the impression of having already seen it, but I can not say it was that building at that place. I saw the floor, I just saw the floor. It was a building of the 60s.Familiarity48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78cMPM1Curot 2017Patient: Oh, this is not true! It comes back. It is the same room yet. It's not true. But where was I? Doctor: Was it still a hospital room? Patient: Yes. Doctor: What color? Patient: Yellow.Personal semantics48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78dMPM1Curot 2017Patient (reading a sentence about politics during stimulation): 2pm! 2 pm! That's still this story! The same. I saw the same corridor style. Doctor: Was it a souvenir? Patient: Yes, but which one? I told on purpose that it was 2 pm, because I felt it had taken place on 2 pm. Doctor: And was that corridor rather dark? Patient: No, the same, yellow.Personal semantics48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.2mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78eMPM1Curot 2017Patient: It has returned to the room. Doctor: What has returned to the room? Patient: I returned to the room. This one, with that patterns (showing the window of the hospital room), with grids. The first one, the hospital room. Doctor: Was it the same room as the one where you saw yourself? The one that was yellow? Patient: Yes.Personal semantics48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.2mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78fMPM1Curot 2017Patient: It starts again, like the other day the same room, the same style. Doctor: Was it yellow? Patient: Yes.Unclassifiable48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
78gMPM1Curot 2017Patient: the same. The same room as earlier. It was visual, something I know.Familiarity48FRightEpilepsy34NonePrescience/premonition sensation, loss of contact, oral automatism, temporo-spatial disorientation.Prescience/premonition sensationLeftUnilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortexLeftADMedial temporal50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
79aAHM3Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: No. There simply was a short moment where I thoughtPersonal semantics9FRightEpilepsy8NoneInitial tachycardia, gustatory hallucination, intraoral tingling, sound amplification, aphasia, motor automatisms, facial automatisms, loss of contact.Gustatory hallucinationsLeftUnilateral temporalLeft temporo-insular dysplasiaPerirhinal cortex -33;-12;-27LeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
79bAHM3Curot 2017Doctor: What did you feel? Patient: Well, it was weird. I thought about thingsPersonal semantics9FRightEpilepsy8NoneInitial tachycardia, gustatory hallucination, intraoral tingling, sound amplification, aphasia, motor automatisms, facial automatisms, loss of contact.Gustatory hallucinationsLeftUnilateral temporalLeft temporo-insular dysplasiaPerirhinal cortex -33;-12;-27LeftADMedial temporal, temporal pole50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
80aSPT1Curot 2017Patient: It's funny, I had my eyes closed, something appeared. I saw something in my right eye. But I can not tell you what it was. Like something in my imagination (she touches her right eye). When you think, when you have a memory, we remember something. Doctor: You saw a picture? Patient: Yes! That's right, a familiar thing. A familiar object, something like that.Familiarity39FLeftEpilepsy9BlindnessInitial tachycardia, gustatory hallucination, intraoral tingling, sound amplification, aphasia, motor automatisms, facial automatisms, loss of contact.Visual hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporalRight temporo-occipital atrophyFusiform gyrus -29;-47;-18LeftUnspecified50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.6mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
80bSPT1Curot 2017Patient: Oh there it is. Doctor: What is it? Patient: I thought it was beside the bed... Something familiar to me. But it is difficult for me to say what exactly this thing is. But actually that sensation has come back. Doctor: You saw something that belongs to you or that you have already seen? Patient: Yes. That's it. Exactly. So I try to find what it is. It's like when you have a word on the tip of the tongue.Familiarity39FLeftEpilepsy9BlindnessRed phosphene, anxiety, chest tightness, oral automatisms, automatic speech.Visual hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporalRight temporo-occipital atrophyFusiform gyrus -29;-47;-18LeftUnspecified50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.6mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
80cSPT1Curot 2017Patient: I have had a small vision right there. On the right eye. I thought I saw a teacher. A small flash like I had a school teacher next to me. I imagined a schoolmaster blouse. I immediately wanted to close my eyes to see the image that appeared over the picture of the present. Doctor: At the same time did you have a feeling of deja vu. Patient: Yes.Unclassifiable39FLeftEpilepsy9BlindnessRed phosphene, anxiety, chest tightness, oral automatisms, automatic speech.Visual hallucinationsRightUnilateral temporalRight temporo-occipital atrophyPerirhinal cortex -33;-8;-31LeftUnspecified50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
81a SDN1Curot 2017Patient: There is my son. It seems that we were in a river somewhere. He was with us. I was giving him to someone, who took him away. Doctor: How old was your son? Patient: Seven. Doctor: In this scene you were living, he was 7 years old? Patient : Yes. Doctor : And is it a scene that had already existed? Patient: Yes. I don't exactly know when it was, which day. Doctor: When did it happen? This summer maybe? Patient: Yes. I was afraid he drows.Personal semantics34FRightEpilepsy29NoneEpigastric discomfort, belching, headache, deja-vu and then loss of contact with fixity of eye gaze and frightened face, chewing movements, hypersalivation, upper limbs stiffness. Post-ictal anomia.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalRight hippocampal sclerosisHippocampus -15;1;-16LeftADMedial temporal50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
81bSDN1Curot 2017Doctor: Do you feel something? Patient: Yes and no. Approximately as earlier. But it was less strong. It seems that I am living a scene like thisPersonal semantics34FRightEpilepsy29NoneEpigastric discomfort, belching, headache, deja-vu and then loss of contact with fixity of eye gaze and frightened face, chewing movements, hypersalivation, upper limbs stiffness. Post-ictal anomia.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalRight hippocampal sclerosisHippocampus 31;-1;-14RightADMedial temporal, temporal pole and insula50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.6mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
82aFRN3Curot 2017Patient: I have a sense of deja vu. It's starting to be unpleasant. Like the last time. It's a feeling of deja vu, something I have already seen. It was a very long time ago. Doctor: What did happen? Was it a scene that you have already lived a long time ago? Patient (breathing deeply): I was in primary school.It was the people who made traps. The patient can not answer anymore because of a seizure starting.Personal semantics27MRightEpilepsy19Guillain Barre SyndromeAuditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character, oral automatisms.Auditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character.BilateralBilateral temporalNormal MRIHippocampus 21;-17;-9LeftADMedial temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
82bFRN3Curot 2017Patient: I beginFamiliarity27MRightEpilepsy19Guillain Barre SyndromeAuditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character, oral automatisms.Auditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character.BilateralBilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortex -19;-13;-12LeftNo ADBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
82cFRN3Curot 2017Patient (reading): Now, I don't know, I don't knowReminiscence of a dream27MRightEpilepsy19Guillain Barre SyndromeAuditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character, oral automatisms.Auditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character.BilateralBilateral temporalNormal MRIHippocampus 21;-17;-9RightADBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
82dFRN3Curot 2017Doctor: Did you feel something? Patient: I do not know exactly what it was... It made me think about something I had already seen.... Doctor: It made you think of anything? Patient: Yes, for just one second, I had an image of a character that I saw, but I do not know when and who it was. It was not like a seizure. Doctor: For a few seconds, you see the image of a character? Patient: Yes. Doctor: Even extremely brief, was it an image? Patient: Yes.Familiarity27MRightEpilepsy19Guillain Barre SyndromeAuditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character, oral automatisms.Auditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character.BilateralBilateral temporalNormal MRIPerirhinal cortex -19;-13;-12RightNo ADBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1.2mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
83aCGT2Curot 2017Patient : As if I had lived something. I don't know why but it brought me back to work. [Personal semantics41FRightEpilepsy29NoneAuditory hallucinations, fear, feeling that someone could hurt him or family, see a frightening movie character, oral automatisms.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalLeft hippocampal sclerosisPerirhinal cortex 28;-13;-26RightADMedial temporal50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
84aSingle caseJacobs2012"I'm like remembering stuff from, like, high school... Why is this suddenly popping in my head?" Personal semantics30MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedSimple or complex partial seizures, secondary generalization, deja vu at the beginning of seizures.UnspecifiedBilateralUnilateral temporalNormal MRIFusiform gyrusLeftAD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsBipolarECOG8mA Jacobs, J., Lega, B., & Anderson, C. (2012). Explaining how brain stimulation can evoke memories. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 24(3), 553-563.
84bSingle caseJacobs2012Patient: It again caused the patient to recall high school memories. It feels like flashbacks, it's again the things with ... Doctor: College? Patient: No high school. Doctor: Is it like hearing or seeing? Patient: It's seeing.Personal semantics30MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedSimple or complex partial seizures, secondary generalization, deja vu at the beginning of seizures.UnspecifiedBilateralUnilateral temporalNormal MRIFusiform gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsBipolarECOG5mA Jacobs, J., Lega, B., & Anderson, C. (2012). Explaining how brain stimulation can evoke memories. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 24(3), 553-563.
84cSingle caseJacobs2012Patient: It's the high school thing again it's like seeing all these teachers from high school. It's like seeing inside their classrooms and stuff. Doctor: Is it still happening right now? Patient: No. Doctor: Is it unpleasant? Patient: It is just weird.Personal semantics30MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedSimple or complex partial seizures, secondary generalization, deja vu at the beginning of seizures.UnspecifiedBilateralUnilateral temporalNormal MRIFusiform gyrusLeftNo AD50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsBipolarECOG6mA Jacobs, J., Lega, B., & Anderson, C. (2012). Explaining how brain stimulation can evoke memories. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 24(3), 553-563.
84dSingle caseJacobs2012"It's the high school thing againPersonal semantics30MRightEpilepsy5UnspecifiedSimple or complex partial seizures, secondary generalization, deja vu at the beginning of seizures.UnspecifiedBilateralUnilateral temporalNormal MRIFusiform gyrusLeftUnspecified50Hz - pulses 300 microsecondsBipolarECOG4mAJacobs, J., Lega, B., & Anderson, C. (2012). Explaining how brain stimulation can evoke memories. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 24(3), 553-563.
85aMST3Curot 2017"Here I feel pain (shows her epigastric region). And again, it makes me feel as during seizures. That is to say that I am physically in one place and after...I'm not at the same place. I saw myself in Pibrac at my grandmother's."Personal semantics23FRightEpilepsy7Meningits (7 months old) with convulsions and comaAscending epigastric discomfort, anxiety, frightened face, oral automatisms, motor automatisms, polypnea, paleness. Post-ictal higher emotionality.NoneBilateralBilateral temporalRight hippocampal sclerosisAmygdala 25;-1;-24RightUnspecifiedBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.6mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
86aCBBM5Curot 2017Patient (reading): Now, I had a reminiscence of a dream I had few days ago. Doctor: How was this dream? Patient: Well I was like in a closed room and everything... a kind of ... in a room, I felt... it was very fleeting. I felt the atmosphere of the room in which I was in that dream ... Doctor: You felt the atmosphere, but did you see the room? Patient: Yes. I saw the color. An orange color...[Reminiscence of a dream30FRightEpilepsy10Cyanosis discomforts during infancyGustatory or olfactory hallucination, deja-vu or deja-vecu, loss of contact, oral automatims, hypersalivation, motor automatisms, +/- generalization.Gustatory or olfactory hallucination, deja-vu or deja-vecu,BilateralTemporal but unspecified (periventricular heterotopia)Bilateral periventricular heterotopiaPerirhinal cortex -25;-3;30RightUnspecifiedBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEGUnspecifiedCurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
87aTBM6Curot 2017Patient: Yes I have seen something I have already seen. Something I have seen in a dream. It was shapes. Doctor: Is it an object of a scene with people? Patient: A scene. Doctor: Can you draw it? Patient. No. There was a person. In the back of the room. The back of the room was yellow. Doctor: Was it moving or was the person static? Patient: The person was moving. It was like a short movie. Doctor: Did you know that person? Patient: No but I had the feeling I have already seen her. Doctor: Did you see his face? Patient: Yes. Reminiscence of a dream12FRightEpilepsy12NoneNoise and pain in right ear, hypersalivation, blurred vision, los of contact, paleness, cyanosis, head and eye deviation to the right, extension of left leg flexion of right leg.NoneRightFronto-temporo-insularDysplasiaTemporal pole 36;3;-33RightUnspecifiedBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEGUnspecifiedCurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
88a KLN2Curot 2017Doctor: What do you feel? Patient: An abnormal feeling. Doctor: What was it? Patient shows his stomach. Doctor: Was there something else? Patient: It was strange. It made me immediately think about thing I have already seen. Like nightmares. Doctor: Were they new images? Was it the room where we are? Patient: No, images like in dreams. Doctor: What kind of dreams? Patient: I was in a hospital. I did not know what I was doing, Doctor: And did you feel that it was something recent or old? Patient: Recent. Patient: Was in that room or in another room? Patient: I think it was not in that room. This feeling came tome as an image. It is difficult to explain.Reminiscence of a dream28MRightEpilepsy12Bacterious meningitis (3 years old)Ascending epigastric discomfort, anxiety, fear, deja-vu or deja-vecu or reminiscences, loss of contact, oral automatisms, right arm motor automatisms. Frequent generalization.Deja-vu or deja-vecu or reminiscences UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedLeft hippocampal sclerosisHippocampus 19;-12;-14RightADMedial temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
88bKLN2Curot 2017Doctor: Do you feel something? Patient: Yes (showing the epigatric region).Doctor: Is there something elese with that feeling? Patient: An image. [Reminiscence of a dream28MRightEpilepsy12Bacterious meningitis (3 years old)Ascending epigastric discomfort, anxiety, fear, deja-vu or deja-vecu or reminiscences, loss of contact, oral automatisms, right arm motor automatisms. Frequent generalization.Deja-vu or deja-vecu or reminiscences UnspecifiedTemporal but unspecifiedLeft hippocampal sclerosisHippocampus 15;-12;-14RightADMedial temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
89aSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: Anything here? Do you fell anything, see anything? Patient: Yeah, I feel like IPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisFusiform gyrusRightNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG2mAM
89bSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: Let me know if you get any sensation like that again. Do you feel anything here? No? Patient: No,IPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisFusiform gyrusRightNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG2mAM
89cSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: I'm going to give it to you one last time. What do you think? Patient: UmPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisFusiform gyrusRightNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG2mAM
89dSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: Did you see it again? Patient: Yeah I saw it again. Doctor: Same thing, staircase andPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisFusiform gyrusRightNo ADUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG2mAM
89eSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: Let me know if the same sort of thing happens again. Patient: It did again. Doctor: (during the afterdischarge) Is it still happening? Patient: Um, no. Only for that brief moment. Doctor: What about the rest of my body? Patient: Yeah, I saw likeUnclassifiable22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisInferior temporal gyrusRightADFusiform gyrusUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG3mAM
89fSingle caseMegevand2014Patient: I sawPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisParahippocampal gyrusRightADInferior temporal gyrusUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG3mAM
89gSingle caseMegevand2014Doctor: Anything here ? Patient: Yeah,I'm having that again. I saw that place and I felt the deja-vuPersonal semantics22FLeftEpilepsy12West nile virus encephalitisDiurnal seizures were preceded by deja-vu described by the patient as a sense of familiarity with his circumstances or situation. He also reported weightlessness and otherworldliness. He denied the actual environment appearing abnormal or unrecognizable, and did not report any visual hallucinations or obscuration. Seizures would then typically proceed to alteration of consciousness, with rare secondary generalization.Deja-vuRightUnilateral temporalBilateral hippocampal sclerosisParahippocampal gyrusRightADInferior temporal gyrusUnspecifiedUnspecifiedBipolarSEEG4mAM
90aSMT4Curot 2017Patient: Yeah, I feel something there. Something I have already seen. Doctor: Can you explain it to me better? Patient: An image already seen in another life. A picture of place... Well a place, a road where you have already been in your life. Doctor: Can you describe what you have seen? Patient: I saw Pibrac. Yeah I saw Pibrac. The main street. Doctor: Where you "there"? Patient: Yeah. I am in front of the bar "St Germain", that's how it's called. I walk in front between the "Catalan" (the greengrocer) and St. Germaine in Pibrac on the main street. Not far from the church and I walk. Doctor: Did it last long? Patient: No, 5-6 seconds. Doctor: Was it associated with an emotion? Patient: Yes a well-being feeling. Personal semantics37MRightEpilepsy35NoneAscending epigastric sensation, flushing, wheezing, anxiety, palpitations, sometimes horripilations. He also reports a feeling of strangeness, a feeling of deja-vu or familiarity.A feeling of strangeness, a feeling of deja-vu or Familiarity.BilateralBilateral temporalLeft hippocampal heterotopiaAmygdala -20;5;-27LeftNo ADBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG1mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
90bSMT4Curot 2017Patient: I feel pain there (shows her upper abdomen). Doctor: Pain and what else? Patient: Something I have already seen. A souvenir, a rendez-vous. Images that come back in my head, of a place like the car-park, close to here. I felt an appointment for a festival, on a car-park, with all my friends, before getting to the place. Doctor: Would you be able to localize that car-park? Patient: Yes, Purpan. Patient (pointing out by the window the hospital carpark): It made me an already-seen picture with the bus, with all the colleagues'cars... Doctor: But the carpark was not exactly this one (showing the hospital carpark)? Patient: No sorry... There was the bus, several cars...We are going to leave... But the more we talk of it the more I loose that image.Episodic37MRightEpilepsy35NoneAscending epigastric sensation, flushing, wheezing, anxiety, palpitations, sometimes horripilations. He also reports a feeling of strangeness, a feeling of deja-vu or familiarity.A feeling of strangeness, a feeling of deja-vu or Familiarity.BilateralBilateral temporalLeft hippocampal heterotopiaHippocampus -19;-12;-9LeftADMedial temporalBiphasic50Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG0.8mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)
91aCCT5Curot 2017Doctor: Are you OK? Patient (reading, stops): 2 seconds. I wonder if I will not feel discomfort. It's likeEpisodic42FRightEpilepsy17Bariatric surgery, drug and food allergies, febrile seizures in infancyUnpleasant feeling in the jaw, verbal automatisms.NoneLeftUnilateral temporalBilateral meningoencephalocelePerirhinal cortex -28;-12;-23LeftADMedial temporalBiphasic1Hz - pulses 1ms BipolarSEEG2mACurot, J., Busigny, T., Valton, L., Denuelle, M., Vignal, J.P., Maillard, L., Chauvel, P., Pariente, J., Trebuchon, A., Bartolomei, F., Barbeau, E. J. A review of 80 years of memories induced by electrical brain stimulation. (2017)